Alphabetical Enumeration of Indian Tribes
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An attempt is made, in the following Table, to locate the various bands of Aborigines, ancient and modern, and to convey the best information respecting their numbers our multifarious sources will warrant. Modern writers have been, for several years, endeavoring to divide North America into certain districts, each of which should include all the Indians speaking the same or dialects of the same, language; but whoever has paid any attention to the subject, must undoubtedly have been convinced that it can never be done with any degree of accuracy. This has been undertaken in reference to an approximation of the great question of the origin of this people, from a comparison of the various languages used among them. An unwritten language easily varied, and there can be no barrier to innovation. A continual intermixing of tribes has gone on from the period of their origin to the present time, judging from what we have daily seen; and when any two tribes unite, speaking different languages, or dialects of the same, a new dialect is produced by such amalgamation. Hence the accumulation of vocabularies would be like the pursuit of an infinite series in mathematics difference, however–in the one we recede from the object in pursuit, while in the other we approach it. But I would not be understood to speak disparagingly of this attempt at classification; for, if it be unimportant in the main design, it will be of considerable service to the student in Indian history on other accounts. Thus, the Uchees are said to speak a primitive language and they ere districted in a small territory south of the Cherokees; but some 200 years ago,–if they then existed as a tribe, and their tradition be true,–they were bounded on the north by one of the great lakes. And they are said to be descended from the Shawanees by some of themselves. We know an important community of them is still in existence in Florida. Have they created a new language in the course of their wanderings? or have those from whom they separated done so? Such are the difficulties we meet at every step of a classification. But a dissertation upon these matters cannot now be attempted.
In the following analysis, the names of the tribes have been generally given in the singular number, for the sake of brevity; and the word Indians, after such names is omitted from the same cause. Few abbreviations have been used;–
W.R. west of the Rocky Mountains;
l., lake; and perhaps a few others.
- Abekas, probably Muskogees, under the French at Tombeckbee in 1750.
- Abenakies, over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada; 200 in 1689, 150 in 1780.
- Absoroka, (Minetare) S. branch Yellowstone; lat. 46°, lon. 105°; 45 000 in 1834.
- Accokesaw, W side Colorado, about 200 m. S.W. of Nacogdoches, in 1805.
- Acomak, one of the six tribes in Virginia when settled by the English in 1607.
- Adaize, 4 m. from Nachitoches, on Lake Macdon – 40 men in 1805.
- Adirondaks, (Algonkin) along the N. shore St. Lawrence; 100 in 1786.
- Affagoula, small clan in 1783, on Mississippi r., 8 m. above Point Coupé.
- Agawom, (Wampanoags,) at Sandwich, Mass.; others at Ipswich, in 1620, &c.
- Ahwahaway, (Minetare,) S. W. Missouri 1820, 3 m. above Mandans; 200 in 1806.
- Ajoues, S. of the Missouri, and N. of the Padoucas; 1,100 in 1760.
- Alannar, (Fall,) head branches S. fork Saskashawan; 2,500 in 1804.
- Algonkin, over Canada; from low down the St. Lawrence to Lake of the Woods.
- Aliatan, three tribes in 1805 among the Rocky Mountains, on heads Platte.
- Aliche, near Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo.
- Allakaweah, (Paunch,) both sides Yellowstone, heads Big Horn r. ; 2,300 in 1805.
- Allibama, (Creeks) formerly on that river, but removed to Red River in 1764.
- Amalistes, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760.
- Anasaguntakook, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine, till 1750.
- Andastes, once on S. shore Lake Erie, S.W. Senecas, who destroyed them in 1672.
- Apaches, (Lapane,) between Rio den Norse and sources of Nuaces r. 3,500 in 1817.
- Apalachicola, once on that r. in W. Florida; removed to Red River in 1764.
- Appalousa, aboriginal in the country, of their name; but 40 men in 1805.
- Aquanuschioni, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves.
- Arapahas, S. side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River.
- Armouchiquois, or Marachite, (Abenaki,) on River St. John, New Brunswick.
- Arrenamuse, on St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas; 120 in 1818.
- Assinnaboin, (Sioux,) between Assinn, and Missourir; 1,000 on Ottawa r. in 1838.
- Atenas, in a village with the Faculli in 1836 west of the Rocky Mountains.
- Athapascow, about the shores of the great lake of their name.
- Atnas, (Ojibewas,) next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 57° N., in 1790.
- Attacapan, in a district of their name in Louisiana; but 50 men in 1805.
- Attapulgas, (Seminoles,) on Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220 souls.
- Attikamigues, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670.
- Aucosisco, (Abenaki) between the Saco and Androscoggin River in 1630, &c.
- Aughquaga, on E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct.
- Ayauais, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side; 800 in 1805.
- Ayutans, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains.
- Bayogoula, W. bank Mississippi, opposite the Colipasa; important in 1699.
- Bedies, on Trinity River, La., about 60 m. S. of Nacogdoches; 100 in 1805.
- Big-Devils, (Yonktons,) 2,500 in 1836; about the heads of Red River.
- Biloxi, at Biloxi, Gulf Mex., 1699; a few on Red r., 1804, where they, had removed.
- Blackfeet, Sources Missouri; 30,000 in 1834; nearly destroyed by small-pox, 1838.
- Blanche, (Bearded, or White,) upper S. branches of the Missouri to 1820.
- Blue-Mud, W., and in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains in 1820.
- Brotherton, near Oneida Lake; composed of various tribes; 350 in 1836.
- Caddo, on Red River in 1717, powerful; on Sodo Bay in 1800; in 1804, 100 men.
- Cadodache, (Nacogdochet,) on Angelina r., 100 m. above the Nechez; 60 in 1820.
- Caiwas, or Kaiwa, on main Canada River, and S. of it in 1830.
- Calasthocles, N. Columbia, on the Pacific, next N. the Chillates; 200 in 1820.
- Callimix, coast of the Pacific, 40 m. N. Columbia River; 1,200 in 1820.
- Camanches, (Shoshone,) warlike and numerous; in interior of Texas.
- Canarsee, on Long Island, N. Y., in 1610 from the W. end to Jamaica.
- Cances, (Kansas,) 1805, from Bay of St. Bernard, over Grand r, toward Vera Cruz.
- Canibas, (Abenaki,) numerous in 1607, and after; on both sides Kennebeck River.
- Carankoua, on peninsula of Bay of St. Bernard, Louisiana; 1,500 in 1805.
- Caree, on the coast between the Nuáces and Riodel Norte; 2,600 in 1817.
- Carriers, (Nateotetains,) a name given the natives of N. Caledonia by traders.
- Castahana, between sources Padouca fork and Yellowstone; 5,000 in 1805.
- Cataka, between N. and S. forks of Chien River; about 3,000 in 1804.
- Catawba, till late, on their river in S. Carolina; 1,500 in 1743, and 450 in 1764.
- Cathlacumups, on main shore Columbia River, S. W. Wappatoo i.; 450 in 1820.
- Cathlakahikit, at the rapids of the Columbia, 160 m. up 900 in 1820.
- Cathlakamaps, 80 m. up Columbia River ; about 700 in 1820.
- Cathlamat, on the Pacific, 30 m. S. mouth of Columbia River; 600 in 1820.
- Cathlanamenamen, on an island in mouth of Wallaumut River; 400 in 1820.
- Cathlanaquiah, (Wappatoo,) S. W. side Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820.
- Cathlapootie, on Columbia Ricer, opposite the Cathlakamaps; 1,100 in 1820.
- Cathlappoya, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth.
- Cathlasko, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Chippanchikchiks,
- Cathlathlalas, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakahikits.
- Cathlath, 500 in 1820, oil the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth
- Cattanahaw, between the Saskashawan and Missouri Rivers, in 1805.
- Caughnawaga, places where Christians lived were so called.
- Chactoo, on Red River; in 1805, but 100; indigenous always lived there.
- Chaouanons, the French so called the Shawanese; Chowans ?)
- Cheegee, (Cherokees,) 50 to 80 m. S. of them; called also Mid. Settlement, 1780.
- Chehawas, small tribe oil Flint River, destroyed by Georgia militia in 1817.
- Chepeyan, claim from lat. 60° to 65°, Lon. 100° to 110° W.; 7,500 in 1512.
- Cherokee, in Georgia, S. Carolina, &c., till 1836; then forced beyond the Mississippi.
- Cheskitalowa, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee.
- Chien, (Dog) near the sources Chien River; 300 in 1800 ; 200 in 1820.
- Chiheeleesh, 40 m. N. of Columbia Ricer; 1,400 in 1820
- Chickasaw, between heads of Mobile River in 1780; once 10,000; now in Arkansas.
- Chippanchikchiks, 60 in 1820, N, side Columbia River, 220 m. from it, mouth.
- Chikahomini, on Matapony River, Va., in 1661; but 3 or 4 in 1790; now extinct.
- Chikamaugas, on Tennessee Ricer, 90 m. below the Cherokees, in 1790.
- Chillates, 150 in 1820, oil the Pacific, N. Columbia River, beyond the Quieetsos.
- Chillukittequau, On the Columbia, next below the Narrows; 1,400 in 1820.
- Chiltz, N. of Columbia River, on the Pacific, next N. of the Killaxthoeles.
- Chimnahpum, on Lewis River, N. W. side of the Columbia; 1800 in 1820.
- Chinnook, on N. side Columbia Ricer; in 1820, about 400 in 28 lodges.
- Chippewas, about Lake Superior, and other vast regions of the N., very numerous.
- Chitimicha, On W, bank Miss. Ricer in 1722; once powerful, then slaves.
- Choktaw, S. of the Creeks ; 15,000 in 1812; in 1848 in Arkansas.
- Chopunnish, on Kooskooskee River 4,300 in 1806, in 73 lodges.
- Chowanok, (Shawanese?) in N. Carolina, oil Bennet’s Creek, in 1708; 3,000 in 1630.
- Chowans, E. of the Tuscaroras in N. Carolina; 60 join the Tuscaroras in 1720.
- Christenaux, only another spelling of Knistenaux, which see.
- Clahclellah, 700 in 1820, on the Columbia River, below the rapids.
- Clakstar, W. R., on a river flowing into the Columbia at Wappatoo Island.
- Clamoctomich, on the Pacific, next N, of the Chiltz ; 260 in 1820.
- Clanimatas, On the S.W. side of Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1520, W. R.
- Clannarminimuns, S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 280 in 1820, W. R.
- Clatsop, about 2 m. N. of the mouth of Columbia River; 1,300 in 1820.
- Clarkames, on a river of their name flowing into the Wallaumut; 1800 in 1820.
- Cneis, on a river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1690; the Coenis of Hennepin, probably.
- Cohakies, nearly destroyed in Potiak’s time; in 1800, a few near Lake Winnebago
- Colapissas, on E. bank Mississippi in 1720, opposite head of Lake Pontchartrain.
- Conchattas, came to Appaloosas in 1794, from E the Mississ.; in 1801, oil Sabine.
- Congarees, a small tribe on Congaree River S. Carolina, in 1701; long since gone.
- Conoys, perhaps Kanhawas being once on that river; (Canais, and variations.)
- Cookkoo-oose,1,500 in 1806, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., and S.of Killawats
- Coopspellar, on a river falling into the Columbia, N. of Clark’s; 1,110 in 1806.
- Coosadas, (Creeks,) once resided near the River Tallapoosie.
- Copper, so called from their copper ornaments, on Cappermine River, in the north.
- Corees, (Tuscaroras ) on Neils River N Carolina, in 1700, and subsequently.
- Coronkawa, On St. Jacintho River, between Trinity and Brazos; 350 in 1820
- Cowlitsick, on Columbia, Ricer, 62 m. from its mouth in 3 villages; 2,400 in 1820.
- Creeks (Muscogees ) Savannah r. to St. Augustine, thence to Flint r., 1730.
- Crees, (Lynx, or Cat,) another name of the Knistenaux, or a part of them.
- Crows, (Absorokas,) S, branches of the Yellowstone Ricer 45,000 in 1834.
- Cutsahnim, on both sides Columbia River, above the Sokulks; 1,200 in 1820.