A complete listing of all the Indian villages, towns and settlements as listed in Handbook of Americans North of Mexico.
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Abechiu (a Tewa onomatope representing the screech of an owl. E. L. Hewett). A prehistoric Tewa pueblo at a place called La Puente, on a bluff close to the south bank of Rio Chama, 3 miles South East of the present town of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 56. 58, 1892.
Abiquiu (from Abechui, q. y. ). A pueblo founded by the Spaniards prior to 1747 at the site of the prehistoric Tewa pueblo of Fejiu, on the Rio Chama, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. In Aug., 1747, it was raided by the Ute, who killed a number of the inhabitants and compelled its abandonment. It was resettled soon afterward, and in 1748 contained 20 families, but, owing to further depredations by the Ute and Navaho, was again abandoned, and in 1754 reoccupied. In 1705 the settlement (the mission name of which was Santa Rosa, later changed to Santo Tomas) contained 166 persons, and in the vicinity were 612 others. In 1779 the pueblo had 851 inhabitants, and at least as early as 1794 it was peopled in part by Genizaros, or Indian captives and fugitives, chiefly Hopi, whom the Spaniards had rescued or purchased. In 1808 Abiquiu contained 122 Indians and 1,816 whites and mestizos. The town was thoroughly Mexicanized by 1854. See Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, 280, 1889; Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, .54, 1892. (F. W. H.)
Abo (A-bo’), A former pueblo of the Tompiros division of the Piros, on the Arroyo del Empedradillo, about 25 m. E. of the Rio Grande and 20 miles south of Manzano, in Valencia County, New Mexico. Whether the pueblo was built on both sides of the arroyo, or whether there were two pueblos” successively occupied, has not been determined. It was first mentioned in 1598 by Juan de Onate; it became the seat of the mission of San Gregorio, founded in 1629 by Fray Francisco de Acevedo, who erected a large church and monastery, the walls of which are still standing,” and died there Aug. 1, 1644. Tenabo and Tabira were the visitas of Abo mission. Considering the ruins now on both banks of the arroyo as those of a single pueblo, the population during the early mission period was probably 2,000. Owing to Apache depredations many of the inhabitants fled to El Paso as early as 1671, and prior to the Pueblo insurrection of 1680 the village was entirely abandoned for the same cause. The Piros of Senecu del Sur claim to be the last descendants of the Abo people. See Vetancurt (1697), Crónica, 325, repr. 1871; Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 270, 1892; Abert in Emory, Recon., 488, 1848. (F. W. H.)
Acacafui. Mentioned by Juan de Onate (Doc. Inéd., xvi, 115, 1871), in connection with Puaray, apparently as a pueblo of the Tigua of New Mexico in 1598.
Acacagua. An unidentified pueblo of New Mexico in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Inéd., xvi, 103, 1871.
Acoli. Mentioned by Oñate ( Doc. Ined. , xvi, 114, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598. Probably situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, and in all probability a Tigua or Piros village.
Acomita. An Acoma summer village about 15 m. N. of the pueblo of Acoma, near McCartys station on the Santa Fe Pacific railroad, Valencia co., N. Mex.
Aconchi. An Opata pueblo on the E. bank of Rio Sonora, about lat. 29º 45′ N. W. Mexico. It was the seat of the Spanish mission of San Pedro, founded in 1639. Pop. 580 in 1678, 285 in 1730. (Orozco y Berra, Geog., 344, 1864.)
Agawano (A-ga′-wa-no}. A prehistoric pueblo of the Narnbe, situated in the mountains about 7 in. E. of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz, lat. 36º, New Mexico. Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, IV, 84, 1892.
Aggey. Mentioned by Oñate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 113, 1871) as a pueblo of New Mexico in 1598. Doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, E. of the Rio Grande, and in all probability occupied at that time by the Tigua or the Piros.
Agua Nueva (Span. : new water ). A former pueblo, doubtless of the Piros, on the Rio Grande between Socorro and Sevilleta, N. Mex. It was apparently abandoned shortly before Gov. Otermin’s second visit in 1681, during the Pueblo revolt. Davis, Span. Conq. N. Mex., 313, 1869.
Aguas Calientes ( Span.: warm waters ) . A province with 3 towns visited by Coronado in 1541; identified by J. H. Simpson with the Jemez ruins at Jemez Hot Springs, near the head of Jemez r., Sandoval co., N. Mex.
Alameda (Span.: cotton wood grove). A ruined pueblo on the E. side of the Rio Grande, about 10 m. above Albuquerque, Bernalillo co. , N. Mex. It was occupied by the Tigua until 1681, and was formerly on the bank of the river, but is now a mile from it, owing to changes in the course of the stream (Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Rep., v, 88, 1884). It was the seat of a Spanish mission, with 300 inhabitants about 1660-68, and a church dedicated to Santa Ana which was doubt less destroyed in the Pueblo revolt of 1 680-96 (Vetancurt (1697), Teatro Mex., in, 311, 1871 ). The settlement was afterward reestablished as a mission visita of Albuquerque. (F. W. H.)
Alamillo. (Span. : little cotton wood ) . A former pueblo of the Piros on the Rio Grande about 12 m, N. of Socorro, N. Mex., the seat of a Franciscan mission, established early in the 17th century, which contained a church dedicated to Santa Ana. The in habitants did not participate in the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and most of them joined the Spaniards in their flight to El Paso, Chihuahua. In the following year, however, on the return of Gov. Otermin, the remaining inhabitants of the pueblo fled, whereupon the village was destroyed by the Spaniards. The population in 1680 was 300. See Vetancurt (1697), Teatro Mex., in, 310, repr. 1871; Bandelier in Arch. Inst. Papers, iv, 239, 1892. (F. W. H.) (Missions of New Mexico, CaliforniaGenealogy)
Alle. A pueblo of New Mexico in 1598, doubtless situated in the Salinas in the vicinity of Abo, and evidently occupied by the Tigua or the Piros. Oñate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871.
Allu. The Antelope clan of the Pecos tribe of New Mexico. Hewett in Am. Anthrop., vi, 431, 1904.
Amaxa. A pueblo of New Mexico in 1598, doubtless situated in the Salinas in the vicinity of Abo, and evidently occupied by Tigua or Piros. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871.
Amo. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy in the region of the lower part of the Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined. xvi, 115, 1871.
Amushungkwa. A former pueblo of the Jemez on a mesa w. of the Hot Springs, about 12 . m. N. of Jemez pueblo, N. Mex. It was abandoned prior to the revolt of 1680. See Patoqua.
Analco. A prehistoric pueblo of the Tewa at the place where there is now the so-called “oldest house,” adjacent to San Miguel chapel, in Santa Fe, N. Mex. According to Bandelier this name was first applied in the 18th century. Ritch (N. Mex., 153, 196, 1885) asserts that the house referred to formed part of the old pueblo, and that two of the old women then living therein claimed to be lineal descendants of the original occupants (p. 113). Bandelier, however, in clines to the opinion (Arch. Inst. Papers, I, 19, 1881; iv, 89, 1892) that the structure dates from Spanish times, a belief substantiated by E. L. Hewett, in 1902, when the building was partly dismantled and found to be of Spanish construction, excepting about 18 inches of the foundation walls which were of Pueblo work.
Anyukwinu. A ruined pueblo of the Jemez, situated x. of the present Jemez pueblo, N. central N. Mex.
Apena. A pueblo of New Mexico in 1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, and occupied by the Tigua or the Piros. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871.
Aponitre. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Aqui. A former Maricopa rancheria on the Rio Gila, s. w. Ariz. Sedelmair (1744) quoted by Bancroft, Ariz, and X. Mex., 366, 1889.
Aquicabo. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 115, 1871.
Aquinsa. Mentioned by Onate in 1598 as one of 6 villages occupied by the Zuñi in New Mexico. In the opinion of Bandelier (Arch. Inst, Papers, iv, 338, 1892) it is identical with Pinawan, a now ruined pueblo 1½ m. s. w. of Zuñi pueblo. Gushing (in Millstone, ix, 55, 1884) regarded Ketchina, 15 m. s. w. of Zuñi, as the probable Aquinsa of the Spaniards, and in 1888 (Internal. Cong. Amer., vii, 156, 1890) the same authority gave Kwakina in connection with Pinawan as the pueblo to which Oñate referred.
Atepua. A pueblo of the province of Atripuy, in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex., in 1598.
Atripuy. Mentioned by Onate (Doc. Ined., xvi, 114-116, 1871) in 1598 as a province containing 42 pueblos in the region of the lower Rio Grande, N. Mex. The name was probably derived from that of a village of the N. branch of the Jumano. The first pueblo of this province, journeying northward, was Trenaquel; the second Qualacu, both of which Bandelier identifies as villages of the Piros who occupied the Rio Grande valley from below Isleta to San Marcial, N. Mex. It may therefore be inferred that Atripuy was the name applied to the country inhabited at that time by the Piros. (F. W. H.)
Axauti. A pueblo of New Mexico in 1598; doubtless situated in the Salinas, in the vicinity of Abo, and evidently occupied by the Tigua or the Piros. Oñate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 114, 1871.
Axol. A Tewa pueblo in New Mexico in 1598. Oñate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 116, 1871.
Aychini. An unidentified pueblo in New Mexico in 1598. Onate (1598) in Doc. Ined., xvi, 103, 1871.
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Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Frederick Webb Hodge, 1906