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Location: Mexico

Biography of Robert S. Crombie

Robert S. Crombie, the senior member of the well-known firm of Crombie & Crombie, wholesale and retail grocers, of Riverside, came here in 1886, and in October of that year entered into mercantile pursuits, establishing his present business under the firm name of Newberry & Crombie, with Mr. J. R. Newberry as his partner. This firm continued until March 1888, when his brother, Mr. G. M. Crombie, bought the interest of Mr. Newberry, and the firm of Crombie & Crombie was formed. The business was enlarged and extended and a branch house established by the firm in Arlington. Mr. Crombie is at the head of one of the most substantial business houses in Riverside, which will compare favorably with any business enterprise of its character in the county. His success is not the result of chance or speculation, but has been secured by a strict attention to the wants of the community and a prompt supplying of them with first-class goods at reasonable prices. The subject of this sketch was born in Richmond, province of Quebec, Canada, in 1860, the son of William and Mary J. (Montgomery) Crombie. His father was a native of Scotland, his mother of Ireland. Mr. Crombie was reared upon his father’s farm, but given the benefit of a good education, graduating from the St. Francis College of Richmond in 1879. In that year he...

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Biography of John B. Tays

John B. Tays is one of the early settlers and enterprising and progressive citizens of Ontario. He is the owner of forty acres of land in that colony and has for years been building up the horticultural industries of his section. His place is located on the south side of Thirteenth Street, east of Euclid Avenue. Mr. Tays purchased this land in 1883 and immediately commenced its improvement, planting trees and vines. He is justly ranked among the pioneer horticulturists of Ontario, and has produced one of the representative places of his section. He now has twenty acres in citrus fruits, of which fifteen acres are in oranges of the Washington Navel and Mediterranean Sweet varieties; five acres are in lemons. His fine vineyards contain twenty acres, fourteen acres being devoted to wine grapes of the Zinfandel, Berger and Riesling varieties, and six acres to Muscat raisin grapes. There are also 400 olive trees upon his laud, three years old. The products of his vineyards are cared for upon the ranch. He dries, packs and ships his raisins, and to dispose of his wine grapes has built a well-ordered and complete winery for distilling the brandies necessary to fortify his sweet wines. He is successful in this industry and his products find a ready sale at good prices. A neat and comfortable cottage residence, suitable outbuildings, etc., attest the...

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Biographical Sketch of Lewis Deck

Lewis Deck, of Redlands, is a native of the “Keystone” State. His father, Henry Deck, was one of the pioneers of Waukeha County, Wisconsin, and had a family of nine children, of whom our subject is the oldest. He left home at the age of fifteen, and went to New York, and from there by the Panama route to California, in 1857. He had the measles while on board the vessel, and when he got on land had not money enough to buy his dinner. He first worked in the vegetable gardens at Marysville, for $20 a month. After this he mined in both quartz and placer mines from 1862 to 1883, all along the coast, but principally in Nevada, and some in Mexico. No man in Southern California, perhaps, has had a more varied experience, nor can they give a fuller history of early mining days than he. He made and lost many fortunes, but in 1883 gave up mining and turned his attention to horticulture. He is a true pioneer and has an extended knowledge of the...

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Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements of Mexico

These pages will provide an alphabetical listing for all the villages, towns, and settlements in what was Mexico at the time the Handbook of American Indian of North America was written. Aboreachic to Azqueltan Babasaqui to Buquibava Caborca to Cusihuiriachic Durango Ecatacari to Espejos Galilali to Gumisachic Hecatari to Huvaguere Igualali to Ixtacan...

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Shawnee Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Big Jim Big Jim. The popular name of a noted full-blood Shawnee leader, known among his people as Wapameepto, “Gives light as he walks”. His English name was originally Dick Jim, corrupted into Big Jim. He was born on the Sabine Reservation, Texas, in 1834, and in 1872 became chief of the Kispicotha band, commonly known as Big Jim’s band of Absentee Shawnee. Big Jim was of illustrious lineage, his grandfather being Tecumseh and his father one of the signers of the “Sam Houston treaty” between the Cherokee and affiliated tribes and the Republic of Texas, February 23, 1836....

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Tigua Tribe

Tigua Indians (Spanish form of Ti’wan, pl Tiwesh’ (span. Tiguex), their own name). A group of Pueblo tribes comprising three geographic divisions, one occupying Taos and Picuris (the most northerly of the New Mexican pueblos) on the upper waters of the Rio Grande; another inhabiting Sandia and Isleta, north and south of Albuquerque, respectively; the third division, living in the pueblos of Isleta del Sur, Texas, and Senecu del Sur, Chihuahua, on the lower Rio Grande. At the time of Coronado’s visit to New Mexico in 1540-42 the Tigua inhabited Taos and Picuris in the north, and, as today, were separated from the middle group by the Tano, the Tewa, and the Rio Grande Queres (Keresan). The villages of this middle group in the 16th century extended from a short distance above Bernalillo to the neighborhood of Los Lunas and over an area east of the Rio Grande near the salt lagoons of the Manzano, in a territory known as the Salinas, from Chilili to Quarai. The pueblos in the south, near El Paso, were not established until late in the 17th century. Tigua Indians History The Tigua were first made known to history through Coronado’s expedition in 1540, whose chroniclers describe their territory, the province of Tiguex, on the Rio Grande, as containing 12 pueblos on both sides of the river, and the people as possessing corn, beans,...

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Pueblo Family

Pueblo Indians, Pueblo Family – (towns, villages , so called on account of the peculiar style of compact permanent settlements of these people, as distinguished from temporary camps or scattered rancherias of less sub stantial houses). A term applied by the Spaniards and adopted by English-speaking people to designate all the Indians who lived or are living in permanent stone or adobe houses built into compact villages in south Colorado and central Utah, and in New Mexico, Arizona, and the adjacent Mexican territory, and extended sometimes to include the settlements of such tribes as the Pima and the Papago, who led an agricultural life. The Pueblo people of history comprise the Tanoan, Keresan (Queres), and Zunian linguistic families of New Mexico, and the Hopi, of Shoshonean affinity, in north east Arizona. These are distributed as follows, the tribes or villages noted being only those now existent or that recently have become extinct: Linguistic Stock Group Tribes or Villages Tanoan Tewa Tigua Jemez Tano Piro Nambe, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, Jan Juan, Santa Clara, Pojoaque (recently extinct) Hano Isleta, Sandia, Taos, Picuris, Isleta del Sur (Mexicanized) Jemez, Pecos (extinct) Practically extinct. Senecu, Socorro del Sur, (both Mexicanized) Keresan (Queres) Eastern Western San Felipe, Santa Ana, Sia, Cochiti, San Domingo Acoma, Laguna, and outlying villages Zuñian Zuñi Zuñi and its outlying villages Shoshonean Hopi Walpi, sichomovi, Mishongnovi, Sipaulovi, Shongopovi, Oraibi Pueblo Indians...

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Papago Tribe

A Piman tribe, closely allied to the Pima, whose original home was the territory south and south east of Gila River, especially south of Tucson, Arizona, in the main and tributary valleys of the Rio Santa Cruz, and extending west and south west across the desert waste known as the Papaguería, into Sonora, Mexico

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Kickapoo Tribe

Kickapoo Indians, Kickapoo People (from Kiwǐgapawa, ‘he stands about,’ Or ‘he moves about, standing now here, now there’). A tribe of the central Algonquian group, forming a division with the Sauk and Foxes, with whom they have close ethnic and linguistic connection. The relation of this division is rather with the Miami, Shawnee, Menominee, and Peoria than with the Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Ottawa. Kickapoo Tribe History The people of this tribe, unless they are hidden under a name not yet known to be synonymous, first appear in history about 1667-70. At this time they were found by Allouez near the portage between Fox and Wisconsin rivers. Verwyst 1Verwyst, Missionary Labors, 1886 suggests Alloa, Columbia County, Wisconsin, as the probable locality, about 12 miles south of the mixed village of the Mascouten, Miami, and Wea. No tradition of their former home or previous wanderings has been recorded; but if the name Outitchakouk mentioned by Druillettes 2Jes. Rel. 1658, 21, 1858 refers to the Kickapoo, which seems probable, the first mention of them is carried back a few years, but they were then in the same locality. Le Sueur (1699) mentions, in his voyage up the Mississippi, the river of the Quincapous (Kickapoo), above the month of the Wisconsin, which he says was “so called from the name of a nation which formerly dwelt on its banks.” This probably refers to Kickapoo...

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Lipan Apache Tribe

Lipan Apache Indians (adapted from Ipa-n’de, apparently a personal name; n’de=’people’). An Apache tribe, designating themselves Náizhan (‘ours,’ ‘our kind’), which at various periods of the 18th and 19th centuries roamed from the lower Rio Grande in New Mexico and Mexico eastward through Texas to the Gulf coast, gaining a livelihood by depredations against other tribes and especially against the white settlements of Texas and Mexico. The name has probably been employed to include other Apache groups of the southern plains, such as the Mescaleros and the Kiowa Apache. The Franciscan mission of San Saba was established among the Lipan in Texas in 1757, but it was soon destroyed by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita. In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were also founded, but these met a like fate in 1767. In 1805 the Lipan were reported to be divided into 3 bands, numbering 300, 350, and 100 men, respective: this apparently gave rise to their subdivision by Orozco N, Berra in 1864 into the Lipajenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes de Abajo. In 1849, under chief Castro, they sided with the Texans againt the Comanche 1Schoolcraft, Thirty Years,642, 1851 ; they were always friendly, with their congeners, the Mescaleros, and with the Tonkawa after 1855, but were enemies of the Jicarillas and the Ute. Between 1845 and 1850 they suffered severely in the...

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Mimbreños Apache Tribe

Mimbreños (Spanish: ‘people of the willows’). A branch of the Apache who took their popular name from the Mimbres mountains, southwest New Mexico, but who roamed over the country from the east side of the Rio Grande in New Mexico to San Francisco River in Arizona, a favorite haunt being near Lake Guzman, west of El Paso, in Chihuahua. Between 1854 and 1869 their number was estimated at 400 to 750, under Mangas Coloradas. In habits they were similar to the other Apache, gaining a livelihood by raiding settlements in New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico. They made peace with the Mexicans from time to time and before 1870 were supplied with rations by the military post at Janos, Chihuahua. They were sometimes called Coppermine Apache on account of their occupancy of the territory in which the Santa Rita mines in southwest New Mexico are situated. In 1875 a part of them joined the Mescaleros and a part were under the Hot Springs (Chiricahua) agency, New Mexico. They are now divided between the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico, and Ft Apache agency, Arizona, but their number is not separately...

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Apache Tribe

Apache Indians (probably from ápachu, ‘enemy,’ the Zuñi name for the Navaho, who were designated “Apaches de Nabaju” by the early Spaniards in New Mexico). A number of tribes forming the most southerly group of the Athapascan family. The name has been applied also to some unrelated Yuman tribes, as the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and Apache Yuma. The Apache call themselves N’de, Dĭnë, Tĭnde, or Inde, `people.’ They were evidently not so numerous about the beginning of the 17th century as in recent times, their numbers apparently having been increased by captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblos, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as from the settlements of northern Mexico that were gradually established within the territory raided by them, although recent measurements by Hrdlicka seem to indicate unusual freedom from foreign admixture. They were first mentioned as Apaches by Oñate in 1598, although Coronado, in 1541, met the Querechos (the Vaqueros of Benavides, and probably the Jicarillas and Mescaleros of modern times) on the plains of east New Mexico and west Texas: but there is no evidence that the Apache reached so far west as Arizona until after the middle of the 16th century. From the time of the Spanish colonization of New Mexico until within twenty years they have been noted for their warlike disposition, raiding white and Indian settlements alike, extending their depredations...

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Aborigines of Mexico

The kingdoms of New Spain, as Central America and the adjoining country were first called, presented a far different aspect, when first discovered by Europeans, from that of the vast and inhospitable wilderness at the North and East. Instead of an unbroken forest, thinly inhabited by roving savages, here were seen large and well-built cities, a people of gentler mood and more refined manners, and an advancement in the useful arts which removed the inhabitants as far from their rude neighbors, in the scale of civilization, as they themselves were excelled by the nations of Europe. When first discovered...

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Pima Indians

Pima Indians. Signifying “no” in the Nevome dialect and incorrectly applied through misunderstanding by the early missionaries. Also called: Â’-â’tam, own name, signifying “people,” or, to distinguish them from the Papago Â’-â’tam â’kimûlt, “river people.” Nashteíse, Apache name, signifying “live in mud houses.” Paǐnyá, probably name given by Havasupai. Saikiné, Apache name, signifying “living in sand (adobe) houses,” also applied to Papago and Maricopa. Teχ-păs, Maricopa name. Tihokahana, Yavapai name. Widshi ǐti’kapa, Tonto-Yuma name. Pima Connections. The Pima gave their name to the Piman linguistic stock of Powell, which is now recognized to be a subdivision of the great Uto-Aztecan stock, also including the Nahuatlan and Shoshonean families. The tribes connected most intimately with the Pima were the Papago (see above) and the Quahatika (q. v.), and after them the so-called Pima Bajo or Nevome of Mexico. Pima Location. In the valleys of the Gila and Salt Rivers. Pima Subdivisions. Formerly the name Pima was applied to two tribes called respectively the Pima Bajo and Pima Alto, but the former, living chiefly in Sonora, Mexico, are now known as Nevome, the term Pima being restricted to the Pima Alto. Pima Villages Agua Escondida, probably Pima or Papago, southwest of Tubac, southwestern Arizona. Agua Fria, probably Pima, on Gila River Reservation. Aquitun, 5 miles west of Picacho, on the border of the sink of the Santa Cruz River. Aranca, two...

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