Location: Mecklenburg County VA

Tutelo Indians

Tutelo Tribe: Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called: Kattera, another form of Tutelo. Shateras, a third form of the name. Tutelo Connections. The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest connections being the Saponi and probably the Monacan. Tutelo Location. The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.) Tutelo History. In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time forward they accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own language until 1898, when the last individual who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of...

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Saponi Indians

Saponi Tribe: Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term “moni seep” signifying “shallow water.” Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word “Pawnee.” Saponi Connections. The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo. Saponi Location. The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with “an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway.” This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.) Saponi Villages. The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town. Saponi History As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith’s map as though it were a town of the Monacan...

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Occaneechi Indians

Occaneechi Tribe: Meaning unknown. The Botshenins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi and Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe. Occaneechi Connections. The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and Saponi. Occaneechi Location. On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River, just below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also North Carolina.) Occaneechi History. Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 1650. When first met by Lederer in 1670 at the spot above mentioned, the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as traders, and their language is said to have been the common speech both of trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912). Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the Tutelo and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In the latter year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were hospitably received, but, attempting to dispossess their benefactors, they were driven away. Later, harassed by the Iroquois and English, the Occaneechi fled south and in 1701 Lawson (1860) found them on the Eno River, about the present Hillsboro, Orange County, North Carolina. Later still they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, having, according to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi. Occaneechi...

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The Saponi and Tutelo Indians

The Tutelo and Saponi tribes must be considered together. Their history under either name begins in 1670. As already stated, Monahassanugh and Nahyssan are other forms of Yesan, the name given to themselves by the last surviving Tutelo, and which seems to have been the generic term used by all the tribes of this connection to designate them as a people. The name Saponi (Monasickapanough?) was generally limited to a particular tribe or aggregation of tribal remnants, while the Iroquois name Tutelo, Totero, or Todirich-roone, in its various forms, although commonly used by the English to designate a particular tribe, was really the generic Iroquois term for all the Siouan tribes of Virginia and Carolina, including even the Catawba. In 1722 the remnants of all the tribes of Virginia and the adjacent parts of Carolina, included under this general designation by the Iroquois, had been gathered at Fort Christanna and were commonly known collectively as Christanna Indians or Saponi. After their removal to the Iroquois country in the north the Iroquois collective term, Tutelo, became more prominent. In deference to Hale, who first established their Siouan affinity, we have chosen to use the form Tutelo, although Totero is more in agreement with the old authorities. With the Iroquois it takes the tribal suffix rone, as Todirich roone. Hale states that, so far as known, the name has no meaning...

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Saponi Tribe

Saponi Indians. One of the eastern Siouan tribes, formerly living in North Carolina and Virginia, but now extinct. The tribal name was occasionally applied to the whole group of Ft Christanna tribes, also occasionally included under Tutelo. That this tribe belonged to the Siouan stock has been placed beyond doubt by the investigations of Hale and Mooney. Their language appears to have been the same as the Tutelo to the extent that the people of the two tribes could readily understand each other. Mooney has shown that the few Saponi words recorded are Siouan. Lederer mentions a war in which the Saponi seem to have been engaged with the Virginia settlers as early as 1654-56, the time of the attack by the Cherokee, probably in alliance with them. The first positive notice is by Lederer (1670), who informs us that he stopped a few days at Sapon, a town of the Tutelo confederacy, situated on a tributary of the upper Roanoke. This village was apparently on Otter river, southwest of Lynchburg, Virginia. Pintahae is mentioned also as another of their villages near by. It is evident that the Saponi and Tutelo were living at that time in close and apparently confederated relation. In 1671 they were visited by Thomas Batts and others accompanied by two Indian guides. After traveling nearly due west from the mouth of the Appomattox about...

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