Location: Indian Territory

Treaty of September 25, 1818 – Osage

A treaty made and concluded by, and between, William Clark, governor of the Missouri Territory, superintendent of Indian affairs, and commissioner in behalf of the United States, of the one part; and a full and complete deputation of considerate men, chiefs, and warriors, of all the several bands of the Great and Little Osage nation, assembled in behalf of their said nation, of the other part; have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. Whereas the Osage nations have been embarrassed by the frequent demands for property taken from the citizens of the United States, by war parties, and other thoughtless men of their several bands, (both before and since their war with the Cherokees,) and as the exertions of their chiefs have been ineffectual in recovering and delivering such property, conformably with the condition of the ninth article of a treaty, entered into with the United States, at Fort Clark, the tenth of November, one thousand eight hundred and eight; and as the deductions from their annuities, in conformity to the said article, would deprive them of any for several years, and being destitute of funds to do that justice to the citizens of the United States which is calculated to promote a friendly intercourse, they have agreed, and do hereby agree, to cede to the United States, and forever quit claim to, the tract of country included...

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Treaty of February 14, 1833 – Creek

Articles of agreement and convention, made and concluded at Fort Gibson, between Montfort Stokes, Henry L. Ellsworth and John F. Schermerhorn, Commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head-men of the Muskogee or Creek nation of Indians, this 14th day of February, A. D. 1833. WHEREAS, certain articles of a treaty were concluded at the City of Washington, on the 24th day of January one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, by and between James Barbour, Secretary of War, on behalf of the United States, and the Chiefs and head-men of the Creek nation of Indians; by which it is agreed that the said Indians shall remove to a country west of the Mississippi river: and whereas the sixth article of said treaty provides as follows:–“that a deputation of five persons shall be sent by them, (the Creek nation) at the expense of the United States, immediately after the ratification of the treaty, to examine the country west of the Mississippi, not within the limits of the States or Territories, and not possessed by the Choctaws or Cherokees. And the United States agree to purchase for them, if the same can conveniently be done upon reasonable terms, wherever they may select, a country, whose extent shall in the opinion of the President, be proportioned to their numbers. And if such purchase can not be...

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Treaty of May 13, 1833

Articles of agreement or a treaty between the United States and the Quapaw Indians entered into by John F. Schermerhorn, commissioner of Indian affairs west on the part of the United States and the chiefs and warriors of the Quapaw Indians. Whereas, by the treaty between the United States and the Quapaw Indians, concluded November 15th, 1824, they ceded to the United States all their lands in the Territory of Arkansas, and according to which they were “to be concentrated and confined to a district of country inhabited by the Caddo Indians and form a part of said tribe,” and whereas they did remove according to the stipulations of said treaty, and settled on the Bayou Treache on the south side of Red River, on a tract of land given them by the Caddo Indians, but which was found subject to frequent inundations on account of the raft on Red River, and where their crops were destroyed by the water year after year, and which also proved to be a very sickly country and where in a short time, nearly one-fourth of their people died, and whereas they could obtain no other situation from the Caddoes and they refused to incorporate them and receive them as a constituent part of their tribe as contemplated by their treaty with the United States, and as they saw no alternative but to...

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Treaty of November 4, 1854

Whereas a convention and agreement was made and entered into by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians, at Doaksville, near Fort Towson, in the Choctaw country, on the seventeenth day of January, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven; and, whereas, difficulties have arisen between said tribes in regard to the line of boundary, between the Chickasaw district and other districts of the Choctaw nation, described in article second of said convention and agreement; and, whereas, it is the desire of the said tribes, that there shall no longer exist any dispute in regard to the boundary of the Chickasaw district, the undersigned, Thomas J. Pitchlynn, Edmund McKenny, R. M. Jones, Daniel Folsom, and Samuel Garland, commissioners duly appointed and empowered by the Choctaw tribe of red people; and Edmund Pickens, Benjamin S. Love, James T. Gaines, Sampson Folsom, and Edmund Perry, commissioners duly appointed and empowered by the Chickasaw tribe of Indians, to settle all matters in dispute between their respective tribes, which require new articles of agreement between them, have solemnly made the following articles of convention and agreement, on the fourth day of November, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, at Doaksville, near Fort Towson, in the Choctaw country, subject to the approval of the President and the Senate of the United States. Article 1. It is agreed by the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes...

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Treaty of June 22, 1855

Articles of agreement and convention between the United States and the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes of Indians, made and concluded at the city of Washington, the twenty-second day of June, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, Peter P. Pitchlynn, Israel Folsom, Samuel Garland, and Dixon W. Lewis, commissioners on the part of the Choctaws; and Edmund Pickens and Sampson Folsom, commissioners on the part of the Chickasaws: Whereas, the political connection heretofore existing between the Choctaw and the Chickasaw tribes of Indians, has given rise to unhappy and injurious dissensions and controversies among them, which render necessary a re-adjustment of their relations to each other and to the United States: and Whereas the United States desire that the Choctaw Indians shall relinquish all claim to any territory west of the one hundredth degree of west longitude, and also to make provision for the permanent settlement within the Choctaw country, of the Wichita and certain other tribes or bands of Indians, for which purpose the Choctaws and Chickasaws are willing to lease, on reasonable terms, to the United States, that portion of their common territory which is west of the ninety-eighth degree of west longitude: and Whereas, the Choctaws contend, that, by a just and fair construction of the treaty of September 27, 1830, they are,...

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Slave Narrative of Annie Groves Scott

Person Interviewed: Annie Groves Scott Place of Birth: Lyonsville, South Carolina Date of Birth: March 18, 1845 Just before the war broke out I was fifteen year old and my mistress told me I was born March 18, 1845, at a little place she called Lyonsville, South Carolina. Maw (that’s all the name she ever called her mother) was born at Charlotte, N.C., and father was born at Lyonsville, same as me, and his name was Levi Grant, which changed to Groves when he was sold by Master Grant. That was when I was a baby and I wants to tell you about that on down the line. I had a brother name of Robert. How old my folks was I never know, but I know their folks come from Africa on a slave boat. One of my uncles who was done brought here from that place, and who was a slave boatman on the Savannah river, he never learned to talked plain, mostly just jabber like the Negroes done when they first get here. Maw told about how the white people fool the Negroes onto the slave boat; how the boatmen would build pens on the shore and put red pieces of cloth in the pens and the fool Negroes would tear the pen down almost getting them ownselves after the cloth and then getting caught. Then they...

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Miami Reservation

The Miami reservation lies northwest from the agency, and is embraced within the area of the Peoria reservation. It is mostly prairie, fine agricultural and grass land. The Miamis have good farms, some quite large. They have their lands by allotment. Some of the fencing was done by the whites for grazing purposes. These Indians receive an annuity, which they use for improving their farms and stock; in fact, they are prosperous people, contented and happy. Some indications of coal are found on the north half of this reservation. There are but 67 Indians in this tribe; 50 speak good English, and 43 read it. A few speak Indian in their families and seem loath to give up the language of their forefathers. They have a good appearance, light complexion, and show the mixture of the whites to a great extent. There are none but what have white blood in them. Many of the females are quite pretty, dress well, are neat, good housekeepers, and intelligent and industrious. Their houses are all quite good, a few being log; the most of them, however, are frame, and some few have large and elegant frame houses, with the floors carpeted and furniture in keeping. They have a healthy appearance, but there are few old people among them. It would seem they are now on the increase, as there have been 5...

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Quapaw Reservation

The Quapaw Indian reservation is situated in the extreme northeast corner of the agency, and is 6.5 miles wide north and south, 14 miles long east and west, and contains 56,685 acres of land. The land is mostly prairie and well watered. Indications of mineral are found on this reservation in almost all the land east of Spring River mid along the Missouri state line. The tribe numbers 154 in all, 75 males and 79 females, of whom 100 speak English and 55 read it. The farms of the Quapaws are small and not well cultivated; the fencing and improvements are mostly done by the whites. A very few of the young men have good farms and are quite industrious, but are retarded by the indolence of the older ones, who teach that none but the white man should work. The appearance of the Quapaws, especially the older ones, shows fewer indications of civilization than that of other Indians at this agency. While they dress like white men, some still wear paint on their faces and feathers in their hats. The women dress in citizens’ clothes, but with very few exceptions wear nothing but handkerchiefs on their heads. They are not very neat or tidy and are not good housekeepers. Many of the older Indians show signs of-scrofula, and some are inclined to consumption. The women have a more...

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Muskhogean Family

The Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1885-1886, (based upon Muskhogees, Hitchittees, Seminoles), Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 402, 1847 (includes Muskhogees, Seminoles, Hitchittees) Muskhogies, Berghaus (1845, Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848) Ibid., 1852. Muscogee, Keane, App. Stanford’s comp. (Cent. And So. Am.), 460, 471, 1678 (includes Muscogees proper, and Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Hitchittees, Coosadas or Coosas, Alibamous, Apalaches). Maskoki, Gatschet, Creek Mig. Legend, I, 50, 1884 (general account of family; four branches, Maskoki, Apalachian, Alibama, Chalita). Berghaus, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887. Choctaw Muskhogee, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II, 119, 1836. Chocta-Muskhog, Gallatin in Trans. Ant. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind, Tribes, in, 401, 1853. Chata-Muskoki, Hale in Am. Antiq., 108, April, 1883 (considered with reference to migration). Chahtas, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am, Antiq. Soc., II, 100, 306, 1836 (or Choctaws). Chahtahs, Pritchard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (or Choktahs or Flatheads). Tschahtas, Berghans (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid., 1852. Choctah, Latham, Nat. Hist, Man, 337, 1850 (includes Choctahs, Muscogulges” Muskohges). Latham in Trans. Phil. Soc, Lond,, 103,, 1856, Latham, Opuscula, 366, 1860. Mobilian, Bancroft, Hist. U. S., 249, 1840. Flat-heads, Prichard, Phys. Hist, Mankind, v. 403, 1847 (Chahtahs or Choktahs). Coshattas, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 349, 1850 (net classified). Humus, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 341, 1850 (east of Mississippi...

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Iroquoian Family

As to the name, original location, geographical distribution, and tribal relations of the Cherokees, the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology gives the following information (pages 76-79): Iroquois, Gallatin in Trans, Am. Antiq. Soc., u, 2423, 305, 1836 (excludes Cherokees). Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 881, 1817 (follows Gallatin). Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt.1, xcix, 77, 1848 (as in 1836). Gallatin, in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, in, 401, 1853. Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 58, 1856. Latham, Opuscula, 327, 1860. Latham, Elements Comp. Phil., 463, 1862. Irokesen, Berghans (1845), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1848. Ibid, 1852. Irokesen, Berghans, Physik. Atlas, map 72, 1887 (includes Natalia and said to be derived from Dakota). Huron-Iroquois, Bancroft, Mist. IT. S., III, 243, 1840. Wyandot-Iroquois, Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.), 460, 468, 1878. Cherokees, Gallatin in Am. Antiq. Soc. II, 89,306, 1836 (kept apart from Iroquois though probable affinity asserted). Bancroft, History U. S., in, 246, 1840. Prichard, Phys. Hist. Mankind, v. 401, 1847. Gallatin in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, xcix, 77, 1848. Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 58, 1856 (a separate group perhaps to be classed with Iroquis and Sioux). Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind, Tribes, III, 401, 1853. Latham, Opuscula, 327, 1860. Keane, App. Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So. Am.), 460, 472, 1878 (same as Chelekees or Tsalagi “apparently entirely...

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The Eastern Cherokee Nation in 1890

The Cherokee Nation by a treaty made in 1817, ceded to the United States an area of land lying east of the Mississippi river. In exchange for this the United States ceded to that part of the nation then on the. Arkansas. River as much land on that river, acre for acre, as the United. States received from them east of the Mississippi River, and provided that all treaties then in force should continue in full force with all of the Cherokees. This established the two names, eastern and western Cherokees. The eastern band of Cherokees is the portion now living in North Carolina, Georgia, and East Tennessee, but chiefly in North Carolina on a tract of land known as, the Qualls boundary. They are thus designated to distinguish them from the Cherokees who emigrated between 1809 and 1817 and located on the public domain at the headwaters of Arkansas and White Rivers, and who are now known as the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. The latter became known as the Cherokee Nation, west. The general term, the Cherokee Nation, includes both. Some of the eastern Cherokees after 1866, on invitation, joined the western Cherokees and are now with them in Indian Territory. As early as 1809 the aggregate of annuities due the Cherokees on account of the sale of lands to the United States was $100,000, and it was...

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Biography of Samuel J. Crawford

Samuel J. Crawford was one of the first members of the Kansas State Legislature, by service on the field of battle attained the rank of brigadier-general during the Civil war, and was the third governor of the state. He was one of the history makers of early Kansas, and what he did to influence the early political development of Kansas must be told on other pages. Following is a brief sketch of his personal career. He was born in Lawrence County, Indiana, April 10, 1835, grew up on a farm, attended the graded schools of Bedford, Indiana, and the law school of Cincinnati College. His parents were William and Jane (Merrow) Crawford, who were natives of North Carolina and had moved to Indiana Territory in 1815. His paternal grandparents were James and Mary (Fraser) Crawford, his grandfather having been a Revolutionary soldier. In remote ancestry the Crawfords were Scotch. Samuel J. Crawford arrived in Kansas Territory and began the practice of law at Garnett on March 1, 1859. He had the personal courage, the mental talents and other qualities so essential for leadership in the troubled country of Kansas at that time, and he did not long remain a struggling lawyer in Garnett. In May of the same year of his arrival he attended the Ossawatomie convention and participated in the organization of the republican party in Kansas. In...

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Biographical Sketch of Hiero T. Wilson

Hiero T. Wilson, one of the first white settlers in Southern Kansas, was born at Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky, September 2, 1806, of Virginian ancestry. His father was a native of the Old Dominion, a Kentucky farmer and for many years surveyor of Logan County. Hiero Wilson was reared on his father’s farm and had some schooling and considerable training in mereantile pursults before he joined his brother in Indian Territory during the year 1834. The latter was then post sutler and trader at Fort Gibson, Cherokee Nation. In 1843, when Fort Scott was established as a military post, Hiero T. Wilson was appointed its sutler, holding the position for ten years. When the post was abandoned in 1855, Mr. Wilson continued in business and a year later, when the Government buildings were sold, bought a home on the plaza. This he transformed into a beautiful residence and there died August 6, 1892; but not before the post had become a prosperous city. As secretary and treasurer of the Town Company, of which George A. Crawford was president, he was a large contributor to its development. He purchased much real estate and platted an addition to Fort Scott; was director of the First National Bank and of the Missouri River, Fort Scott & Gulf Railroad, and a leader in all the progress of the city and section. One of...

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Biography of Rev. Father Paul M. Ponziglione

Rev. Father Paul M. Ponziglione, one of the most famous Catholic missionaries of Southern Kansas and what was, in his time, Indian Territory –particularly among the Osage Indians of the Southwest–was born in Piedmont, Italy, February 11, 1818. He was of noble descent on both sides of the house, but, as he was wont to express it, his greatest pride was that he belonged to “the noble family of Adam,” His education was obtained in several Jesuit institutions of Italy, the College of Nobles at Turin conferring upon him the degree of Bachelor of Arts. But the pomp of the Italian court had no fascinations for young Paul, and in 1839 he entered the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Chieri, near Turin. The year 1848 found him connected with the Jesuit College in Genoz and during the revolution of that year, with other priests, he was transported to Sardinis and serionsly wounded by a mob. He finally escaped to Modena, and soon after, under holy orders, embarked from Havre for New York. The general of the Jesuit Socisty had already assigned him to missionary work in Missouri. Father Pouziglione spent two years in Missouri and Kentucky, engaged in missionary work, and in March, 1851, accompanied by Bishop Miege, left St. Louis for his far western mission. While his home was to be at Osage Mission, and his...

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Biography of Rev. John G. Pratt

Rev. John G. Pratt, one of the most widely known Protestant missionaries of Kansas and the West, was born in Hingham, Massachusetts in 1814 and graduated from Andover Seminary in the fall of 1836. He was immediately licensed to preach and the Baptist Suciety sent him to the Indian country to labor among the Shawnees. He continued that work for seven years, and in the fall of 1844 located four miles south of Fort Leavenworth to take charge of a contemplated mission of Green Bay Indians, lately arrived from Wisconsin. But they did not receive the promised allotment of land, and the mission was never organized. Mr. Pratt then chose a location near White Church, Wyandotte County, Kansas, for mission work among the Delawares, taking charge of a boarding school for the Indians which was built and owned by the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. As a result of these labors Mr. Pratt became convineed that the Indian when taken young is as bright and apt as the average white child of the same age. The Delawares, especially, showed their appreciation of his work by their request that the Government set aside from their annuities for educational purposes an amount equal to $25 per year per pupil. In this quito famous school were taught English elementary branches, with algebra, natural philosophy and some of the academic studies. From 1864...

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