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Location: Fort Belknap Reservation

Fort Belknap Reservation

Fort Belknap Agency The report of Special Agent Jere E. Stevens on the Indians of Fort Belknap reservation, Fort Belknap agency, Montana, December 1800. Names of Indian tribes or parts of tribes occupying said reservation; (a) Assinaboine and Gros Ventre. The unallotted area of this reservation is 537,600 acres, or 840 square miles. This reservation has not been surveyed. It was established, altered, or changed, by treaty of October 17, 1855 (11 U. S. Stats., p.657); unratified treaties of July 18, 1866, and of July 13 and 15 and September 1,1868; executive orders, July 5, 1873, and August 19, 1874; act of Congress approved April 15, 1874 (18 U. S. State., p. 28); executive orders, April 13, 1875, and July 13, 1880, and agreement made January 21, 1887, approved by Congress May 1, 1888 (25 U. S. Stats. page 113). Indian population 1890: Assinaboine, 952;, Gros Ventre, 770; total, 1,722. Fort Belknap Reservation The agency of this reservation is located on the south bank of the Milk River, 4 miles south of Harlem, a station on the line of the Great Northern railway and the nearest post office. The agency has been located here about a year, having been removed from the old site when the reservation was reduced in size. The Assinaboine live principally along the Milk River, which forms the northern boundary of the reservation, while the...

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Arapaho Indians

Possibly from the Pawnee tirapihu or larapihu, signifiying “trader.” Also called: Ähyä’to, Kiowa name. Ano’s-anyotskano, Kichai name. Bĕtidĕĕ, Kiowa Apache name. Detseka’yaa, Caddo name, signifying “dog eaters.” Dog Eaters. E-tah-leh, Hidatsa name, signifying “bison path Indians.” Hitänwo’ǐv, Cheyenne name, signifying “cloud men” or “sky men.” Inûna-ina, own name, signifying “our people.” Ita-Iddi, Hidatsa name (Maximilian). Kaninahoish, Chippewa name. Komséka-Ki`ñahyup, former Kiowa name, signifying “men of the worn-out leggings.” Kun na-nar-wesh or Gene des Vach[es], by Lewis and Clark (1804). Mahpíyato, Dakota name, signifying “blue cloud.” Niă’rharǐ’s-kûrikiwa’ahûski, Wichita name. Särĕtǐka, Comanche and Shoshoni name, signifying “dog eaters”; the Pawnee, Wichita, and Ute names were forms of this. Arapaho Connections. Together with their near relatives, the Atsina, the Arapaho constitute the most aberrant group of the Algonquian linguistic stock. Arapaho Location. The Arapaho have occupied a number of different regions in the historic period, but after they crossed the Missouri they became most closely identified with northeastern Wyoming, where the main or northern part of the tribe resided for a long period and where they were finally given a reservation. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota) Arapaho Subdivisions The Arapaho recognized five main divisions, which were evidently originally distinct tribes. Mooney (1928) calls these: Nákasinĕ’na, Báachinĕna, or Northern Arapaho. Náawunĕna, or Southern Arapaho. Aä’ninĕna, Hitúnĕna, Atsina, or Gros Ventres of the Prairie, today usually reckoned...

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Assiniboin Indians

Assiniboin Indians. From a Chippewa term signifying “one who cooks by the use of stones.” E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying “long arrows” (Long, 1823). Guerriers de pierre, French name. Hohe, Dakota name, signifying “rebels.” Sioux of the Rocks, English name. Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the Indian. Tlu’tlama’eka, Kutenai name, signifying “cutthroats,” the usual term for Dakota derived from the sign language. Weepers, given by Henry (1809). Assiniboin Connections. The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota), having sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they spoke. Assiniboin Location. The Assiniboin were most prominently associated historically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin Rivers, Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory north of the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White Earth. (See also North Dakota) Assiniboin Subdivisions The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He states that, anciently, there were three principal tribal divisions, viz: Ho-‘ke (Like-Big-Fish) Tu-waa’hudaa (Looking-like-Ghosts) Sitcoa’-ski (Tricksters, lit. “Wrinkled-Ankles”). Lowie obtained the names of the following smaller bands: Tcanxta’daa, Uaska’ha (Roamers), Wazi-‘a wintca’cta, (Northern People), Wato-‘paxna-on wan or Wato’paxnatun, Tcan’xe wintca’cta (People of the Woods), Tani°’ta’bin (Buffalo-Hip), Hu’deca-‘bine (Red-Butt), Waci-‘azI hya-bin (Fat-Smokers), Witci-‘abin, In’yanton’wanbin (Rock People), Wato-‘pabin (Paddlers), Cuñtce-‘bi (Canum Mentulae), Cahi-‘a iye’ska-bin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees) ), Xe’natonwan (Mountain...

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Atsina Indians

Atsina Indians. Probably from Blackfoot At-se’-na, supposed to mean “gut people.” Also called: Acapatos, by Duflot de Mofras (1844). A-re-tear-o-pan-ga, Hidatsa name. Bahwetego-weninnewug, Chippewa name, signifying “fall people.” Bot-k’in’ago, signifying “belly men.” Fall Indians, common early name. Gros Ventres des Plaines, derived from an incorrect interpretation of the tribal sign and the qualifying phrase “des Plaines” to distinguish them from the Hidatsa, the Gros Ventres de la Riviere. Haaninin or Aa’ninena, own name, said to signify “white-clay people,” “lime-men,” or “chalk-men.” His-tu-i’-ta-ni-o, Cheyenne name. Hitfinena, Arapaho name, signifying “beggars” or “spongers.” Minnetarees of the Plains, Minnetarees of the Prairies, so called to avoid confusion with the Hidatsa (q. v. under North Dakota). Rapid Indians, from Harmon (1820). Sa’pani, Shoshoni name, signifying “bellies.” Sku’tani, Dakota name. Atsina Connections. The Atsina were a part of the Arapaho, of which tribe they are sometimes reckoned a division, and both belong to the Algonquian linguistic family. Atsina Location. On Milk River and adjacent parts of the Missouri, in what is now Montana, ranging northward to the Saskatchewan. (See also Canada.) Atsina Subdivisions Kroeber (1908 b) has recorded the following names of bands or clans, some of which may, however, be duplications: Names of clans whose position in the camp circle is known, beginning at the south side of the opening at the east: Frozen or Plumes, “Those-who-water-their-horses-once-a-day” Tendons, “Those-who-do-not-give-away,” or “Buffalo-humps” Opposite (or...

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