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Location: Dakota Territory

History of Arapaho and Cheyenne Treaties

These treaties were instrumental in establishing and defining the relationship between the United States and the Arapaho and Cheyenne Confederation. They also impacted the history of the tribe after it signed the initial treaty of 1825. Each succeeding treaty will show the historian a shrinking land mass controlled by the Arapaho and Cheyenne. Includes land cession maps detailing the land ceded by the Arapaho and Cheyenne.

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Massacres of the Mountains

J.P. Dunn wrote Massacres of the Mountains in an attempt to separate historical fact from sensational fiction and to verify the problems that plagued the Indian tribes in this country of years. He doesn’t assign blame, but lets it fall where it belongs by meticulous research and the accurate, unbiased depiction of the true causes and subsequent results of some of the most famous Indian conflicts.

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Treaty of March 8, 1865

Articles of treaty made and concluded at Washington, D. C., between the United States of America, by their commissioners, Wm. P. Dole, C. W. Thompson, and St. A. D. Balcombe, and the Winnebago tribe of Indians, by their chiefs, Little Hill, Little Decoria, Whirling Thunder, Young Prophet, Good Thunder, and White Breast, on the 8th day of March, 1865. Article I.The Winnebago tribe of Indians hereby cede, sell, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to their present reservation in the Territory of Dakota, at Usher’s Landing, on the Missouri River, the metes and bounds whereof being on file in the Indian Department. Article II.In consideration of the foregoing cession, and the valuable improvements thereon, the United States agree to set apart for the occupation and future home of the Winnebago Indians, forever, all that certain tract or parcel of land ceded to the United States by the Omaha tribe of Indians on the sixth day of March, A. D. 1865, situated in the Territory of Nebraska, and described as follows, viz: Commencing at a point on the Missouri River four miles due south from the north boundary-line of said reservation; thence west ten miles; thence south four miles; thence west to the western boundary-line of the reservation; thence north to the northern boundary-line; thence east to the Missouri River, and thence...

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Treaty of March 10, 1865

Supplementary treaty between the United States of America and the Ponca tribe of Indians, made at the city of Washington on the tenth day of March, A. D. 1865, between William P. Dole, commissioner on the part of the United States, and Wah-gah-sap-pi, or Iron Whip; Gist-tah-wah-gu, or Strong Walker; Wash-com-mo-ni, or Mitchell P. Cerre; Ash-nan-e-kah-gah-he, or Lone Chief; Tah-ton-ga-nuz-zhe, or Standing Buffalo; on the part of the Ponca tribe of Indians, they being duly authorized and empowered by the said tribe, as follows, viz: Article 1.The Ponca tribe of Indians hereby cede and relinquish to the United States all that portion of their present reservation as described in the first article of the treaty of March 12th, 1858, lying west of the range line between townships numbers (32) thirty-two and (33) thirty-three north, ranges (10) ten and (11) eleven west of the (6) sixth principal meridian, according to the Kansas and Nebraska survey; estimated to contain thirty thousand acres, be the same more or less. Article 2.In consideration of the cession or release of that portion of the reservation above described by the Ponca tribe of Indians to the Government of the United States, the Government of the United States, by way of rewarding them for their constant fidelity to the Government and citizens thereof, and with a view of returning to the said tribe of Ponca Indians...

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Treaty of June 19, 1858 – Mdwekakanton

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, on the nineteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, by Charles E. Mix, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named chiefs and headmen of the Mendawakanton and Wahpakoota bands of the Dakota or Sioux tribe of Indians, viz, Wabashaw, Chetanakooamonee, Washuhiyahidan, Shakopee, Wamindeetonkee, Muzzaojanjan, and Makawto, chiefs, and Hinhanduta, Ha-raka-Muzza, Wakanojanjan, Tachunr-pee-muz-za, Wakinyantowa, Chunrpiyuha, Onkeeterhidan, and Wamouisa, braves, on the part of the Mendawakantons, and Hushawshaw, chief, and Pa-Pa and Tataebomdu, braves, on the part of the Wahpakootas, they being duly authorized and empowered to act for said bands. Article 1. It is hereby agreed and stipulated that, as soon as practicable after the ratification of this agreement, so much of that part of the reservation or tract of land now held and possessed by the Mendawakanton and Wahpakoota bands of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, and which is described in the third article of the treaty made with them on the fifth day of August, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, which lies south or southwestwardly of the Minnesota River, shall constitute a reservation for said bands, and shall be surveyed, and eighty acres thereof, as near as may be in conformity with the public surveys, be allotted in severalty to each head of a family, or single...

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Treaty of June 19, 1858 – Sisseton

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington on the nineteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, by Charles E. Mix, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named chiefs and head-men of the Sisseeton and Wahpaton bands of the Dakota or Sioux tribe of Indians, viz: Maz-zah-shaw, Wamdupidutah, Ojupi, and Hahutanai, on the part of the Sisseetons, and Maz-zomanee, Muz-zakoote-manee, Upiyahideyaw, Umpedutokechaw, and Tachandupahotanka, on the part of the Wahpatons, they being duly authorized and empowered to act for said bands. Article 1. It is hereby agreed and stipulated that as soon as practicable after the ratification of this agreement, so much of that part of the reservation or tract of land now held and possessed by the Sisseeton and Wahpaton bands of the Dakota or Sioux Indians, and which is described in the third article of the treaty made with them on the twenty-third day of July, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, which lies south or south west wardly of the Minnesota River, shall constitute a reservation for said bands, and shall be surveyed, and eighty acres thereof, as near as may be in conformity with the public surveys, be allotted in severalty to each head of a family or single person over the age of twenty-one years, in said bands of Indians; said allotments...

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Treaty of April 19, 1858

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, this nineteenth day of April, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, by Charles E. Mix, commissioner on the part of the United States, and the following-named chiefs and delegates of the Yancton tribe of Sioux or Dacotah Indians, viz: Pa-la-ne-a-pa-pe, the man that was struck by the Ree. Ma-to-sa-be-che-a, the smutty bear. Charles F. Picotte, Eta-ke-cha. Ta-ton-ka-wete-co, the crazy bull. Pse-cha-wa-kea, the jumping thunder. Ma-ra-ha-ton, the iron horn. Mombe-kah-pah, one that knocks down two. Ta-ton-ka-e-yah-ka, the fast bull. A-ha-ka-ma-ne, the walking elk. A-ha-ka-na-zhe, the standing elk. A-ha-ka-ho-che-cha, the elk with a bad voice. Cha-ton-wo-ka-pa, the grabbing hawk. E-ha-we-cha-sha, the owl man. Pla-son-wa-kan-na-ge, the white medicine cow that stands. Ma-ga-scha-che-ka, the little white swan. Oke-che-la-wash-ta, the pretty boy. (The three last names signed by their duly-authorized agent and representative, Charles F. Picotte,) they being thereto duly authorized and empowered by said tribe of Indians. Article 1. The said chiefs and delegates of said tribe of Indians do hereby cede and relinquish to the United States all the lands now owned, possessed, or claimed by them, wherever situated, except four hundred thousand acres thereof, situated and described as follows, to wit—Beginning at the mouth of the Naw-izi-wa-koo-pah or Chouteau River and extending up the Missouri River thirty miles: thence due north to a point; thence easterly...

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Treaty of July 23, 1851

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Traverse des Sioux, upon the Minnesota River, in the Territory of Minnesota, on the twenty-third day of July, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, between the United States of America, by Luke Lea, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and Alexander Ramsey, governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs in said Territory, commissioners duly appointed for that purpose, and See-see-toan and Wah-pay-toan bands of Dakota or Sioux Indians. Article 1. It is stipulated and solemnly agreed that the peace and friendship now so happily existing between the United States and the aforesaid bands of Indians, shall be perpetual. Article 2. The said See-see-toan and Wah-pay-toan bands of Dakota or Sioux Indians, agree to cede, and do hereby cede, sell, and relinquish to the United States, all their lands in the State of Iowa; and, also all their lands in the Territory of Minnesota, lying east of the following line, to wit: Beginning at the junction of the Buffalo River with the Red River of the North; thence along the western bank of said Red River of the North, to the mouth of the Sioux Wood River; thence along the western bank of said Sioux Wood River to Lake Traverse; thence, along the western shore of said lake, to the southern extremity thereof; thence in a direct line, to the junction of Kampeska Lake with the...

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Treaty of March 12, 1858

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the city of Washington, on the twelfth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, by Charles E. Mix, commissioner on the part of the United States, and Wa-gah-sah-pi, or Whip; Gish-tah-wah-gu, or Strong Walker; Mitchell P. Cera, or Wash-kom-moni; A-shno-ni-kah-gah-hi, or Lone Chief; Shu-kah-bi, or Heavy Clouds; Tah-tungah-nushi, or Standing Buffalo, on the part of the Ponca tribe of Indians; they being thereto duly authorized and empowered by said tribe. Article 1. The Ponca tribe of Indians hereby cede and relinquish to the United States all the lands now owned or claimed by them, wherever situate, except the tract bounded as follows, viz: Beginning at a point on the Neobrara River and running due north, so as to intersect the Ponca River twenty-five miles from its mouth; thence from said point of intersection, up and along the Ponca River, twenty — miles; thence due south to the Neobrara River; and thence down and along said river to the place of beginning; which tract is hereby reserved for the future homes of said Indians; and to which they agree and bind themselves to remove within one year from the date of the ratification of this agreement by this Senate and President of the United States. Article 2. In consideration of the foregoing cession and relinquishment, the United States agree...

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Treaty of September 24, 1857

Articles of agreement and convention made this twenty-fourth day of September, A. D. 1857, at Table Creek, Nebraska Territory, between James W. Denver, commissioner on behalf of the United States, and the chiefs and head-men of the four confederate bands of Pawnee Indians, viz: Grand Pawnees, Pawnee Loups, Pawnee Republicans, and Pawnee Tappahs, and generally known as the Pawnee tribe. Article 1. The confederate bands of the Pawnees aforesaid, hereby cede and relinquish to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to all the lands now owned or claimed by them, except as hereinafter reserved, and which are bounded as follows. viz: On the east by the lands lately purchased by the United States from the Omahas; on the south by the lands heretofore ceded by the Pawnees to the United States; on the west by a line running due north from the junction of the North with the South Fork of the Platte River, to the Keha-Paha River; and on the north by the Keha-Paha River, to its junction with the Niobrara, L’eauqi Court, or Running-Water River, and thence, by that river, to the western boundary of the late Omaha cession. Out of this cession the Pawnees reserve a tract of country, thirty miles long from east to west, by fifteen miles wide from north to south, including both banks of the Loup Fork...

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Treaty of August 5, 1851

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Mendota, in the Territory of Minnesota, on the fifth day of August, eighteen hundred and fifty-one, between the United States of America, by Luke Lea, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and Alexander Ramsey, governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs in said Territory, commissioners duly appointed for that purpose, and the Med-ay-wa-kan-toan and Wah-pay-koo-tay bands of Dakota and Sioux Indians. Article 1. The peace and friendship existing between the United States and the Med-ay-wa-kan-toan and Wah-pay-koo-tay bands of Dakota or Sioux Indians shall be perpetual. Article 2. The said Med-ay-wa-kan-toan and Wah-pay-koo-tay bands of Indians do hereby cede and relinquish all their lands and all their right, title and claim to any lands whatever, in the Territory of Minnesota, or in the State of Iowa. Article 3. [Stricken out.] Article 4. In further and full consideration of said cession and relinquishment, the United States agree to pay to said Indians the sum of one million four hundred and ten thousand dollars, ($1,410,000,) at the several times, in the manner and for the purposes following, to wit: 1st. To the chiefs of the said bands, to enable them to settle their affairs and comply with their present just engagements; and in consideration of their removing themselves to the country set apart for them as above, (which they agree to do within one year...

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Christmas at Fort Yates, Dakota

Our readers will be glad to welcome Miss Josephine E. Barnaby to her new field of work, and to a place in the pages of the Missionary. She is of the Omaha tribe, was a student at Hampton, then spent some time in a training school for nurses in New Haven, Connecticut, and is now the assistant of Miss Collins at the Grand River Station. Miss Collins writes of her: “Josephine is very much interested in her work. She said to-day, ‘I wish every one interested in Indians could come here and stay long enough to see how the foundation ought to be laid, and how much better off our native teachers, Elias and Wakanna, are with the Bible knowledge they have without the English, than the Indians are who speak English and are without Christ.’ She knows, for her people are largely godless but English-speaking.” My Dear Friends: We have been so busy getting ready for Christmas that we have had no time to write to our friends. Miss Collins told the Indians on Sunday last that we were going to have a tree and wanted all the Indians to come, the real old ones as well as the young men and women. She told them of how our Savior was born on Christmas day, how the people came and gave him gifts, and we, in remembering his...

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