Location: Clay County GA

Native American History of Clay County, Georgia

Clay County is named after United States Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky/ Clay was also a Secretary of State and Speaker of the House three times, while a Representative. The county seat of Clay County is the town of Fort Gaines. Clay County is bounded on the north by Quitman County, GA. On the south, it is bordered by Early County, GA. The county’s western boundaries are formed by the Chattahoochee River, the Alabama State Line, Henry County, AL and, Barbour County, AL. On the east, it is bordered by Calhoun County, GA. On the northeast, it is bordered by Randolph County, GA. Geology and hydrology Clay County is located in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain. In most areas of the Gulf Coastal Plain the terrain is almost level with sandy loam soils. The soils located in stream former Miocene, Pliocene and Holocene swamplands (25 million to 2,000 years ago) can be extremely fertile. Because of their sandy structure, they were particular attractive to Native American farmers, who only had crude stone and bone tools with which to till the soil. In Clay County, these sandy loam soils primarily occur on a series of terraces rising from the Chattahoochee River and in narrow bands along major streams. The Chattahoochee Red Clay Hills run through the eastern portion of Clay County. Here, there are ravines created by streams flowing westward...

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Sawokli Indians

Sawokli Tribe: Possibly meaning “raccoon people,” in the Hitchiti language, and, while this is not absolutely certain, the okli undoubtedly means “people.” Sawokli Connections. The Sawokli belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic stock and to the subdivision called Atcik-hata. (See Apalachicola.) Sawokli Location. The best known historic location was on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of the present Barbour County, Ala. (See Florida and Georgia.) Sawokli Villages Hatchee tcaba, probably on or near Hatchechubbee Creek, in Russell County, Ala. Okawaigi, on Cowikee Creek, in Barbour County, Ala. Okiti-yagani, in Clay County, Ga., not far from Fort Gaines. Sawokli, several different locations, the best known of which is given above. Sawoklutci, on the east bank of the Chattahoochee River, in Stewart County, Ga. Teawokli, probably on Chattahoochee River in the northeastern part of Russell County, Ala. Sawokli History. When first known to the Spaniards the Sawokli were living on Chattahoochee River below the falls of Columbus, Georgia, on the Alabama side. A Spanish mission, Santa Cruz de Sabacola, was established in one section of the tribe by Bishop Calderón of Cuba in 1675, and missionaries were sent to a larger body among the Creeks in 1679 and again in 1681. Most of the Indians surrounding these latter, however, soon became hostile and those who were Christianized withdrew to the junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, where they were settled...

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Kolomi Tribe

The earliest mention of Kolomi town is contained in a letter of the Spanish lieutenant at Apalachee, Antonio Mateos, in 1686. 1Serrano y Sanz, Doc. Hist., pp. 194-195. A translation of this has been given in considering the history of the Kasihta. 2See p. 221. The town was then probably on Ocmulgee River, where it appears on some of the very early maps, placed close to Atasi. From the failure of Mateos to mention Atasi it is possible that that town was not yet in existence. From later maps we learn that after the Yamasee war the Kolomi settled on the Chattahoochee. The maps show them in what is now Stewart County, Ga., but Colomokee Creek in Clay County may perhaps mark a former settlement of Kolomi people farther south. The name is often given on maps in the form ”Colomino.” 3This form of the name suggests a derivation from kulo, a kind of oak with large acorns, and omin, “where there are.” Still later they removed to the Tallapoosa, where, as appears from Bartram, they first settled upon the east bank but later moved across. 4Bartram, Travels, p. 394. In all these changes they seem to have kept company with the Atasi. Their name appears in the lists of 1738, 1750, 1760, and 1761. In 1761 their officially recognized trader was James Germany. 5MS8., Ayer Lib.; Miss. Prov. Arch.,...

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Muskogee Indians

Muskogee. Meaning unknown, but perhaps originally from Shawnee and having reference to swampy ground. To this tribe the name Creeks was ordinarily applied. Also called: Ani’-Gu’sa, by the Cherokee, meaning “Coosa people,” after an ancient and famous town on Coosa River. Ku-û’sha, by the Wyandot. Ochesee, by the Hitchiti. Sko’-ki han-ya, by the Biloxi. Muskogee Connections. The Muskogee language constitutes one division of the Muskhogean tongues proper, that which I call Northern. Muskogee Location. From the earliest times of which we have any record these people seem to have had towns all the way from the Atlantic coast of Georgia and the neighborhood of Savannah River to central Alabama. (See also Florida, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.) Muskogee Villages It is difficult to separate major divisions of the Muskogee from towns and towns from villages, but there were certainly several distinct Muskogee tribes at a very early period. The following subdivisional classification is perhaps as good as any: Abihka (in St. Clair, Calhoun, and Talladega Counties): Abihka-in-the-west, a late branch of Abihka in the western part of the Creek Nation, Okla. Abihkutci, on Tallassee Hatchee Creek, Talladega County, on the right bank 5 miles from Coosa River. Kan-tcati, on or near Chocolocko, or Choccolocco, Creek and probably not far from the present “Conchardee.” Kayomalgi, possibly settled by Shawnee or Chickasaw, probably near Sylacauga, Talladega County. Lun-ham-ga, location unknown. Talladega,...

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