Location: British Columbia Canada

Senijextee Indians

Senijextee Indians were located on both sides of the Columbia River from Kettle Falls to the Canadian boundary, the valley of Kettle River, Kootenay River from its mouth to the first falls, and the region of the Arrow Lakes, B. C. The Lake Indians on the American side were placed on Colville Reservation.

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Biography of John M. Silcott

Almost forty years have passed since John M. Silcott took up his residence in Idaho, and he is therefore one of the oldest and most widely known pioneers of the state. He came in the spring of 1860 to establish the government Indian agency at Lapwai, and has since been identified with the growth and development of this section. He is a Virginian, his birth having occurred in Loudoun County, of the Old Dominion, January 14, 1824. His French and Scotch ancestors were early settlers there, and during the Revolution and the war of 18 12 representatives of the family loyally served their country on the field of battle. William Silcott, the father of our subject, married Sarah Violet, a lady of Scotch ancestry, and about 1828 they removed with the family to Zanesville, Ohio, where the father engaged in business as a contractor and builder. He was liberal in his religious views, and his wife held the faith of the Presbyterian Church. His political support was given the Whig party and the principles advocated by Henry Clay. Only two children of the family of five are now living, the sister being Sarah T., who married Captain Abrams, of Brownsville, Pennsylvania. Mrs. Abrams now makes her home in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1845 the family removed to St. Louis, where both the parents died. Mr. Silcott received a common-school education...

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Biography of Keith W. White

Keith Wood White, a retired farmer now residing in Grangeville, is a native of the far-off state of Connecticut, his birth having occurred in the town of Ashford, Windham County, on the 15th of May 1838. His ancestors came from old England and settled in New England at an early epoch in the history of this country, and there the family remained for several generations. Keith W. White, the father of our subject, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, and married Catharine Farnum, a native of Connecticut. They became the parents of two children, and the father provided for their support by working as foreman in a cotton mill. He died in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and his wife passed away in her forty-eighth year. She was a member of the Congregational church. The subject of this review is now the only survivor of the family. When six years of age he accompanied his parents on their removal to Ohio and was reared upon the home farm near Cleveland. He obtained his education in the public schools, and at the age of fourteen years began to earn his own livelihood, since which time he has been dependent upon his own resources. He removed to Ottawa, Illinois, and thence, in 1856, went to Nebraska, and in 1859 was among the first to cross the plains to Pike’s Peak at...

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Tatlitkutchin Tribe

Tatlitkutchin Indians (‘Peel river people’). A Kutchin tribe, closely allied to the Tukkuthkutchin, living on the east band of Peel river, British Columbia, between lat. 66º and 67º.  For a part of the season they hunt on the mountains, uniting sometimes with parties of the Tukkuthkutchin.  They confine their hunting to the caribou, as they no longer have moose hunters among them.  In 1866 they numbered 30 hunters and 60...

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Seechelt Tribe

Seechelt Indians, Seechelt First Nation, Seechelt People (Si-‘ciatl). A Salish tribe on Jervis and Seecheltinlets, Nelson island, and the south part of Texada island, British Columbia. They speak a distinct dialect and are thought by Hill-Tout on physical grounds to be related to the Lillooet. Anciently there were 4 divisions or septs – Kunechin, Tsonai, Tuwanek, and Skaiakos – but at present all live in one town, called Chatelech, around the mission founded by Bishop Durieu, who converted them to Roman Catholicism. The Kunechin and Tsonai are said to be of Kwakiutl lineage. Pop. 236 in 1902, according to the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs, and 325 according to Hill-Tout. The former authority gives 244 in...

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Lillooet Tribe

Lillooet Indians (‘wild onion’). One of the 4 principal Salish tribes in the interior of British Columbia, situated on Fraser River around the mouths of Cayoosh Creek and Bridge River, on Seton and Anderson Lakes, and southward from them to Harrison Lake. Pop. 978 in 1904. Bands: Anderson Lake Bridge River Cavoosh Creek (2) Douglas Enias Fountain Kanlax Lillooet (2) Mission Niciat Pemberton Meadows Schloss It is sometimes divided into the Lower Lillooet, including the Douglas and Pemberton Meadows bands, and the Upper Lillooet, including all the...

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Tsimshian Tribe

Tsimshian Indians, Tsimshian  People, Tsimshian First Nation (‘people of Skeena river’). The most important of the three main divisions of the Chimmesyan linguistic family, and that which gives it its name. In the strictest sense it designates the following closely related tribes or divisions living between Nass and Skeena rivers, north British Columbia: Kilutsai, Kinagingeeg, Kinuhtoiah, Kishpachlaots, Kitlani, Kitsalthlal, Kitunto, Kitwilgioks, Kitwilksheba, and Kitzeesh. To these are sometimes added the Kitzilas and Kitzimgaylum, who live farther up Skeena river, near the canyon, but speak the same dialect. The appellation has also been extended to cover all other tribes speaking this dialect, viz, the Kitkahta, Kitkatla, and Kittizoo, who live on the islands southward. The divisional names given are also names of the ancient towns. To these may be added the following modern towns: New Kitzilas, Metlakatla (New and Old). Port Essington, and Port Simpson. Population in 1908 (including 465 enumerated in Duncan’s colony, Alaska, in 1900,) 1,140. The name for this division has been so often extended to include other branches of it that some of the synonyms may have a similar...

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Kitksan Tribe

Kitksan Indians, Kitksan People, Kitksan First Nation (‘people of Seena [Ksian] river’) One of the three dialectic divisions of the Chimmesyan stock, affiliated more closely with the Naska than with the Tsimshian proper.  The people speaking the dialect live along the upper waters of Skeena river, British Columbia.  Dorsey enumerates the following towns; Kauldaw, Kishgagass, Kishpiyeoux, Kitanmaiksh, Kitwingach, Kitwinskole, and Kitzegukla.  To these must be added the modern mission town of Meamskinisht.  A division is known as the Glen-Vowell Band.  Population 1,120 in...

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Bellabella Tribe

Bellabella Indians, Bellabella People, Bellabella First Nation (an Indian corruption of Milbank taken back into English). The popular mame of an important Kwakiutl tribe living on Milbank sound., British Cololumbia. Their septs or subtribes are Kokaitk Oetlitk Oealitk The following clans are given: Wikoktenok (Eagle) Koetenok (Raven) Halhaiktenole (Killerwhale) Pop. 330 in 1901. The language spoken by this tribe and shared also by the Kitamat, Kitlope, China Hat, and Wikeno Indians is a peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called Heiltsuk from the native name of the Bellabella. These tribes resemble each other furthermore in having a system of clans with descent through the, mother, derived probably , from their northern neighbors, while the Bellacoola and Kwakiutl to the south have paternal descent. Anciently the Bellabella here very warlike, a character largely attributable to the fact that they wore flanked on one side by the Tsimshian of Kittizoo and on the other by the Bellacoola, while war parties of Haida from the Queen Charlotte islands were constantly raiding their coasts. For this reason, perhaps, the peculiar secret societies of the north west coast, the most important of which evidently had their origin in war customs, first arose among them. When voyagers first began frequenting the north Pacific coast, Milbank island., which offers one of the few good openings into the inner ship channel to Alaska, was often visited, and its inhabitants...

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Nootka Tribe

Nootka Indians, Nootka People, Nootka First Nations. A name originally applied to the Mooachaht of Nootka sound, west coast of Vancouver Island, and to their principal town, Yuquot, but subsequently extended to all the tribes speaking a similar language. These extend from Cook Creek to the north to beyond Port San Juan, and include the Makah of Flattery Creek, Washington. Sometimes the term has been used as to exclude the last named tribe. The Nootka form one branch of the great Wakashan family and their relationship to the second or Kwakiutl branch is apparent only on close examination. In 1906 there were 435 Makah and 2,159 Vancouver Island Nootka for a total of 2,594. They are decreasing slowly but steadily, the reduction in population of the Nootka of Vancouver Island alone having exceeded 250 between 1901 and 1906. The Nootka tribes are: Ahousaht, Chaicclesaht, Clayoquot, Cooptee, Ehatisaht, Ekoolthaht, Hachaath (extinct), Hesquiat, Kelsemaht, Klahosaht (probably extinct), Kwoneatshatka (?), Kyuquot, Makah, Manosaht, Mooachaht, Muchalat, Nitinat, Nuchatlitz, Oiaht, Opitchesaht, Pachenaht, Seshart, Toquart, Uchucklesit, and Ucluelet.  ...

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Nanaimo Tribe

Nanaimo Indians, Nanaimo People, Nanaimo First Nation (contraction of Snanaímux). A Salish tribe, speaking the Cowichan dialect, living about Nanaimo Harbor, on the east coast of Vancouver Island and on Nanaimo Lake, British Columbia.  Population 161 in 1906. Their gentes are Anuenes, Koltsiowotl, Ksalokul, Tewethen, and...

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Nahane Tribe

Nahane Indians, Nahane People, Nahane First Nation (‘people of the west.’). An Athapascan division occupying the region of British Columbia and Yukon Territory between the Coast range and the Rocky mountains, from the north border of the Sekani, about 57° north, to that of the Kutchin tribes, about 65° north. It comprises the Tahltan and Takutine tribes forming the Taliltan division, the Titshotina and Etagottine tribes forming the Kaska division, and the Esbataottine and Abbatotine (considered by Petitot to be the same tribe), Sazeutina, Ettchaottine, Etagottine, Kraylongottine, Klokegottine, and perhaps Lakuyip and Tsetsant. They correspond with Petitot’s Montagnard group, except that he included also the Sekani. The language of the Nahane however constitutes a dialect by itself, entirely distinct from Sekani, Carrier, or Kutchin. The western divisions have been powerfully influenced by their Tlingit neighbors of Wrangell, and have adopted their clan organization with maternal descent, the potlatch customs of the coast tribes, and many words and expressions of their language. The two principal social divisions or phratries are called Raven and Wolf, and the fact that Sazeutina and Titshotina seem to signify ‘Bear people’ and ‘Grouse people’ respectively, leads Morice to suspect that these groups are really phratries or clans. The eastern Nahane have a loose paternal organization like the Sekani and other Athapascan tribes farther east. According to Morice the Nahane have suffered very heavily as a...

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Biography of John B. Tays

John B. Tays is one of the early settlers and enterprising and progressive citizens of Ontario. He is the owner of forty acres of land in that colony and has for years been building up the horticultural industries of his section. His place is located on the south side of Thirteenth Street, east of Euclid Avenue. Mr. Tays purchased this land in 1883 and immediately commenced its improvement, planting trees and vines. He is justly ranked among the pioneer horticulturists of Ontario, and has produced one of the representative places of his section. He now has twenty acres in citrus fruits, of which fifteen acres are in oranges of the Washington Navel and Mediterranean Sweet varieties; five acres are in lemons. His fine vineyards contain twenty acres, fourteen acres being devoted to wine grapes of the Zinfandel, Berger and Riesling varieties, and six acres to Muscat raisin grapes. There are also 400 olive trees upon his laud, three years old. The products of his vineyards are cared for upon the ranch. He dries, packs and ships his raisins, and to dispose of his wine grapes has built a well-ordered and complete winery for distilling the brandies necessary to fortify his sweet wines. He is successful in this industry and his products find a ready sale at good prices. A neat and comfortable cottage residence, suitable outbuildings, etc., attest the...

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Biography of John Boyd

John Boyd, a well-known citizen of Riverside, though not a pioneer, has been a resident of the city since 1876, and there are few men who have been more closely identified with the real interest and improvements of the city than John Boyd. He arrived at a time when the first named commodity at least was needed and appreciated. He erected a substantial building on Main Street, and entered into business; and as the demands of the city increased he was ever to the front with his improvements. The present magnificent Boyd block, with its frontage of 111 1/2 feet on Main Street, is one of the results of his enterprise. He erected spacious warehouses and storerooms on Eighth Street and Pachappa Avenue, and established a commission and storage business. This was in 1885, and in 1887 he formed a partnership with Frank B. DeVine, purchased the first packing business of the German Fruit Company, and under the firm name of Boyd & DeVine ‘combined the two enterprises and founded one of the most substantial and largest business establishments in the county. Mr. Boyd is a self-made man, one who started in life handicapped with obstacles which when not pursued with his rugged energy and perseverance would be deemed insurmountable. The few and brief facts gathered regarding his life before his advent in Riverside are as follows: He was...

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