It is reported that gold was discovered by a French Canadian in Pend d’Oreille river, in 1852. Two years later General Lander found gold while exploring the route for a military road from the Columbia to Fort Bridger. The earliest discoveries of which we have any authentic record, however, were probably made by members of the party with that veteran pioneer and path-finder, Captain John Mullan, the originator of the now famous Mullan road from Fort Benton to Walla Walla, a distance of six hundred and twenty-four miles. In a letter dated Washington, D. C, June 4, 1884, to Mr. A. F. Parker, of Eagle City, he says:
I am not at all surprised at the discovery of numerous rich gold deposits in your mountains, because both on the waters of the St. Joseph and the Coeur d’Alene, when there many years ago, I frequently noticed vast masses of quartz strewing the ground, particularly on the St. Joseph river, and wide veins of quartz projecting at numerous points along the line of my road along the Coeur d’Alene, all of which indicated the presence of gold. Nay, more: I now recall quite vividly the fact that one of my herders and hunters, a man by the name of Moise, coming into camp one day with a handful of coarse gold, which he said he found on the waters of the north fork of the Coeur d’Alene while out hunting for our expedition. This was in 1858 or 1859. The members of my expedition were composed very largely of old miners from California, and having had more or less experience in noticing the indication of mineral de-posits, their universal verdict was that the entire country, from Coeur d’Alene lake on toward and including the east slope of the Rocky mountains, was one vast gold-bearing country, and I was always nervous as to the possible discovery of gold along the of my road; and I am now frank to say that I did nothing to encourage its discovery at that time, for I feared that any rich discovery would lead to a general stampede of my men from my expedition, and thus destroy the probable consummation of my work during the time within which I desired to complete the same. I then regarded it as of the first importance to myself and to the public to open a base line from the plains of the Spokane on the west to the plains of the Missouri on the east, from which other lines could be subsequently opened, and by means of which the correct geography of the country could be delineated. My object at that time was to ascertain whether there was a practicable railroad line through the valleys, and if there existed any practicable pass in the main range of the Rocky mountains through which, in connection with the proper approaches thereto, we could carry a wagon road, to be followed by a railroad line, and I did not hesitate to make all other considerations secondary or subordinate thereto, believing then, and knowing now, that if a railroad line was projected and completed through the valleys and the passes of the Rocky mountains, between the forty-fifth and forty-eighth parallels of latitude, all other developments would naturally and necessarily soon follow.
A romantic tale is told of the discoveries which led to the Oro Fino excitement in 1860. Tradition relates that a Nez Perce Indian, in 1860, informed Captain E. D. Pierce that while himself and two companions were camping at night among the defiles of his native mountains, an apparition in the shape of a brilliant star suddenly burst forth from among the cliffs. They believed it to be the eye of the Great Spirit, and when daylight had given them sufficient courage they sought the spot and found a glittering ball that looked like glass, embodied in the solid rock. The Indians believed it to be “great medicine,” but could not get it from its resting place. With his ardent imagination fired by such a tale, Captain Pierce organized a company, and with the hope of finding the “eye of their Manitou,” explored the mountains in the country of the Nez Perces.
He was accompanied by W. F. Bassett, Thomas Walters, Jonathan Smith, and John and James Dodge. The Indians distrusted them, however, and refused to permit them to make further search. They would doubtless have had to leave the country had not a Nez Perce squaw come to their relief and piloted them through to the north fork of the Clearwater and the Palouse country, cutting a trail for days through the small cedars, reaching a mountain meadow, where they stopped to rest. While there Bassett went to a stream and tried the soil for gold, finding about three cents in his first panful of dirt. This is said to be the discovery that resulted in the afterwards famous Oro Fino mines. After taking out about eighty dollars, they returned to Walla Walla. Sergeant J. C. Smith, of that place, thereupon fitted out a party and started for the mines, reaching there in November, 1860. In the following March Smith made his way out on snow-shoes, taking with him eight hundred dollars in gold-dust. This dust was shipped to Portland, where it caused a blaze of excitement.
During 1861 and 1862 the rush continued. Steamers arrived at Portland from San Francisco and Victoria loaded down with freight and passengers for the new gold-fields. New mining regions were constantly discovered. In the spring of 1861 Pierce City was founded and named in honor of Captain Pierce. The Elk City mines were discovered early in 1861 by parties from Oro Fino. Florence was discovered in the following autumn. In August, 1862, James Warren and others located claims in what was thereafter known as Warren’s Diggings. These last named are all on the tributaries of the Salmon river. Warren’s never caused the rush and excitement that attended the discovery of Florence. The latter, it is claimed, was found by a greenhorn, one of a party of seven hunters. The recklessness characteristic of new mining camps found full play here. Thirty men were killed in the first year; shooting and cutting were every-day matters. Prices were abnormal.
The Walla Walla Statesman, in chronicling the event, gives the following description of the discovery of the Salmon river mines in 1861: “S. F. Ledyard arrived last evening from the Salmon river mines, and from him it is learned that some six hundred miners would winter there; that some two hundred had gone to the south side of the river, where two streams head that empty into the Salmon, some thirty miles southeast of the present mining camp. Coarse gold is found, and as high as one hundred dollars per day to the man has been taken out. The big mining claim of the old locality belongs to Mr. Weiser, of Oregon, from where two thousand six hundred and eighty dollars were taken on the 20th, with rockers. On the 21st three thousand three hundred and sixty dollars were taken out with the same machines. Other claims were paying from two to five pounds per day. Flour has fallen to fifty cents per pound, and beef at from fifteen to twenty-five cents is to be found in abundance. Most of the mines are supplied till the first of June. Mr. Ledyard met between Slate creek and Walla Walla, en route to the mines, three hundred and ninety-four packs and two hundred and fifty head of beef cattle.” The same journal on December 13, 1861, gives the following account of the new diggings: “The tide of immigration to Salmon river flows steadily onward. During the week past not less than two hundred and twenty-five pack-animals, heavily laden with provisions, have left this city (Walla Walla) for the mines. If the mines arc one-half so rich as they are said to be, we may safely calculate that many of these trains will return as heavily laden with gold-dust as they are now with provisions. The late news from Salmon river seems to have given the gold fever to everybody in this immediate neighborhood. A number of persons from Florence City have arrived in this place during the week, and all bring the most extravagant reports as to the richness of the mines. A report in relation to a rich strike made by Air. Bridges, of Oregon City, seems to come well authenticated. The first day he worked on his claim, near Baboon Gulch, he took fifty-seven ounces: the second day he took one hundred and fifty-seven ounces: third day, two hundred and fourteen ounces; and the fourth day, two hundred ounces in two hours. One gentleman informs us that diggings have been found on the bars of the Salmon river which yield from twenty-five cents to two dollars and fifty cents to the pan, and that on claims in the Salmon river diggings have been found where “ounces’ won’t describe them and where they say the gulches are ‘full of gold.’ The discoverer of Baboon Gulch arrived in this city yesterday, bringing with him sixty pounds of gold-dust: and Mr. Jacob Weiser is on his way in with a mule loaded with gold-dust.”
Such glowing descriptions nearly forty years ago had their inevitable effects, while the more substantial argument was adduced in the fact that $1,750,000 in gold dust was exported from this region that year. According to Mr. Elliott, during April, 1862, three thousand persons left Portland, by steamer, for the mines, and by the last of May it was estimated that between twenty and twenty-five thousand persons had reached or were on their way to and near the mines east of the Cascade mountains. The yield accounted for, of gold, in 1862, in this region of country, reached seven million dollars, and several millions in addition to this were shipped through avenues not reported.
“Such,” says the chronicler, “were the results following in a few short months upon the trail pioneered by E. D. Pierce, W. F. Bassett, and their little party of prospectors whom the Indians had driven out of the country, but to return to it again and again, first led by a squaw, then through the assistance of T. C. Smith, when pursued as trespassers by a company of United States cavalry. Enough has been given to show the reader the influence that awoke eastern Washington, Oregon, and Idaho from their sleep through the centuries, to a new era of activity and usefulness.”
It was a strange throng that came pouring over the mountains of north Idaho in the days of 1862. On foot, horseback, or by any other means that could be obtained, they pushed their way over swollen rivers, rugged mountains, and Indian-infested valleys. Lewiston, Lapwai, Oro Fino, Pierce City, Elk City, Florence, these were the magic names that fired the imaginations and stimulated the ardor of these dauntless pioneers.
One of the effects of the Florence excitement was the discovery of Boise basin, in Boise County. A party of men left Florence in the fall of 1 86 1, and in the following summer passed over into central Idaho. They came by the way of Oregon, crossing the Snake River by the mouth of the Boise. They followed up Boise River to the site of Boise city. Under instructions from an Indian whom they there encountered, they struck out for the mountains north of Boise River, and subsequently camped near where Centerville now stands. While prospecting on the creek, one of the party named Grimes was killed by Indians. The creek, which has become famous in the history of Idaho placer mining, has ever since been called Grimes creek. After the death of Grimes, his companions left the country for Walla Walla. Another party returned to the basin in October 1862. A stockade was built, and the place was styled “Fort Hog’em,” a name which locally survives to this day. A writer in the Idaho World gives the following account of the discovery of Boise basin:
A party of thirty-eight men, known as Turner’s party, left Auburn. Oregon, in the spring of 1862, for Sinker creek, in Owyhee County. It was reported that emigrants, in fishing along this creek, used gold nuggets, picked up on the creek, for sinkers hence the name.
Joseph Branstetter of this place, was with Turner’s party. Failing to find gold on Sinker creek, Branstetter and seven others left the party and met Captain Grimes’ party of eight men, between Sinker creek and Owyhee River. Grimes’ party and Branstetter and three others of his party. Colonel Dave Fogus one of the number, making twelve ‘men all told, concluded to strike up into the mountains of this section. They crossed Snake River, eight miles above the Owyhee river, in skiffs made of willows. Snake river was then at high-water mark. The party struck Grimes creek near Black’s ranch and followed up said creek, along which they first discovered gold, near where the town of Boston stood two or three miles below Centerville. They obtained good prospects there about a bit to the pan. The party proceeded up to Grimes Pass, near the head of Grimes creek. One day, while all of the party were in camp, a shot was fired a short distance from the camp, the bullet passing over the men’s heads. A few moments after a second shot was fired, the bullet cutting the hair over one of Mr. Branstetter’s ears. Grimes, a Portuguese named Phillip, Mose Splann, and Wilson, Grimes’ partner, then struck out from camp on the hunt of the Indian that did the shooting. Grimes got on the track of the Indian, on the hill above camp, and was following the tracks with his shot-gun in his hands when the fatal shot was fired. Splann was about fifty yards to Grimes’ left, and the Portuguese a short distance behind. Grimes was within thirty steps of an Indian and about a hundred and fifty yards from the camp when he was shot. The Indian made his escape. Grimes was shot near the heart, and lived only long enough to tell Wilson to tell his wife, who was in Portland, how he came to his death. Grimes frequently made the remark that he would never reach home that he was to be killed by Indians. The day before he was killed he remarked, while gazing at the picture of his only child, a daughter of a few years of age, that he would never see her again, that he had only a short time to live. Grimes’ remains were buried at Grimes Pass, where he was killed. Grimes was a young man, twenty-seven or twenty-eight years of age. The party consisted of four Portuguese and three other men, in addition to those mentioned, the names of two of whom Mr. Branstetter never knew, and the names of the others he has forgotten. Grimes was killed in August, 1862. A short time after his death the party left for Auburn, Oregon, and returned in October of the same year. That fall Branstetter and A. Saunders rocked out from fifty to seventy-five dollars a day near Pioneerville, and packed the dirt one hundred yards in sacks. A. D. Saunders and Marion More returned with the party in October. The party numbered ninety-three men. Jeff Standifer’s party arrived from Florence about a week after the party of ninety-three got in from Auburn. W. B. Noble of this place was with the Standifer party. The above was related to us by Mr. Branstetter. He was the youngest man in Grimes’ party; was twenty years of age when they reached Boise Basin.
The mines on Granite creek were discovered about the 1st of December by the party, who also located the site of Placerville, which contained about six cabins, partly completed on the 14th day of that month.
Boise basin soon became known as the greatest placer country outside of California. By the 1st of January 1863, over three thousand men had made their way into it. Centerville, Pioneerville, Placerville, Granite Creek, Idaho City (originally known as Bannock), sprung into existence, and by September of that year there were probably two thousand five hundred men scattered through the basin. Several million dollars had been taken out by the close of the season that year. In July 1864, over two thousand five hundred claims had been recorded in Banner district; in Centerville over two thousand, and in Placerville over four thousand five hundred.
Idaho City, or Bannock, became the metropolis of the basin, and at one time could boast of a population, transient and permanent, estimated as high as from seven thousand to ten thousand. On the 18th of May, 1865, the town was completely destroyed by a disastrous fire, property to the extent of one and a quarter million of dollars lost, and seven thousand people left homeless and shelterless. The town was rebuilt during the same season, however, and though three times destroyed by fire, for many years retained its prestige as the leading mining town of Idaho.
The first ferry across Snake River was established in 1862. A number of persons from Placerville, twenty-seven in all, in the spring of 1863, visited what is now Owyhee County. They discovered Reynolds creek, which was named in honor of one of their party. On the following day the men reached a stream, where they camped, panned the gravel, and obtained a hundred colors. The place was named Discovery Bar. Happy Camp, near the site of Ruby City, was discovered soon after. The creek was named after the leader of the expedition, and the district was called Carson, after another member of the party. In July the first quartz lead was discovered by R. H. Wade, and named Whisky Gulch. In the following month the placers in the French district were discovered, and also the Oro Fino quartz ledge. The celebrated Poorman mine was not discovered until October 1865. The mines of middle and south Boise, in Alturas county, including Atlanta, Yuba, and Rocky Bar, were discovered in 1864.
Such in brief is the history of the mineral discoveries in Idaho prior to 1870. By that time the rush, the fever, the excitement attendant upon new discoveries, had quieted down. Many of those who had come into the territory, carried along by the wave of excitement, left with the ebbing tide. The placer mines had been worked, though by no means exhausted. The rush had subsided and a reaction had set in. According to statistics, the yield of 1869 was less than that of any year before or since. Those who remained in Idaho, however, continued to prosper.
Dispersed over Idaho’s immense territory, greater than that of New York, New Jersey. Massachusetts, and New Hampshire combined, there were in 1870, exclusive of tribal Indians, less than fifteen thousand inhabitants, including about four thousand Chinamen. Her settlements were scattered, frequently a hundred miles or more apart. Situated far from the ordinary lines of through travel, only the most daring and hardy adventurers sought her mountain solitudes. The only means of communication were by tedious journeys by stage or team, or more frequently on horseback, over rough mountain trails, where natural obstacles were only enhanced by the oft-recurring presence of prowling bands of Indians, who so long resented the intrusion of the whites. The nearest railroad at this time was the Central Pacific, through Utah and Nevada.
None of these drawbacks, however, could deter the pioneer and prospector. Great as these obstacles were, they shrank into insignificance when confronted by the spirit of the gold-seekers. The discoveries of the past were regarded as but an earnest of the future. It was known that far up among her mountain fastnesses were other store-houses of precious metals that needed only enterprise and capital to develop their hidden treasures. From the remote and secluded mountains of “Far Idaho,” as from an almost unknown and unseen source, the golden streams continued flowing. For years the placers of Boise basin and Salmon River, and the ledges of Owyhee, Rocky Bar, and Atlanta, continued yielding their riches, thus constantly adding to the national wealth.
No discoveries of new fields, and no stampedes of any importance, occurred, however, for several years. In the meantime the great work of prospecting the rugged mountains still went on. Far up among the snow-capped hills of northeastern Idaho was an unknown region, still described on some maps as “unexplored country.” Along the tributaries of the upper Salmon, in the neighbor-hood of Yankee Fork, Kinnikinnick and Bayhorse creeks, in what is now Custer County, prior to 1877, solitary prospectors had located a few claims, and placers had been worked to advantage. Occasional visitors from that far-off land had exhibited among the mining men of Salt Lake City specimens of gold and silver ore, whose assay value could be expressed only in four figures. The Charles Dickens had been located in 1875. A thousand dollars had been crushed out in small hand-mortars in a day. During the first month, two men pounded out about twelve thousand dollars. A few tons of ore were then sacked and shipped to Salt Lake City and to Swansea. The net results were fifteen thousand dollars, the highest grade sampling three thou-sand seven hundred dollars per ton. A lot of twenty-three tons netted over seventeen thousand dollars. In 1878 a two-bed arastra, with pan and settler, was built at a cost of nineteen thou-sand four hundred dollars, and started up late in August. By the first of November, by crushing two tons of quartz per day, the arastra had produced bullion to the amount of thirty-two thou-sand dollars. A well known writer, speaking of the General Custer mine in the same district, says:
It is the only instance on record where a ledge so immense in wealth and size was already opened and developed when the eyes of the prospector first looked upon it. Ore bodies are usually found beneath the surface, and miners consider themselves fortunate if, after long searching by shafts and tunnels, they strike a vein that insures them reasonable dividends over and above the cost of development. The Custer required no outlay of money to make it a paying mine. Its face was good for millions. Nature, in one of her philanthropic moods, did the prospecting and development. The outer wall of this great treasure-vault, through the wear and tear of ages, crumbled and slipped from the ore body for a distance of several hundred feet, leaving many thousands of tons of the very choicest rock lying against the mountain side, to be broken down at little expense.
The Montana mine on Mount Estes has been pronounced by mining men to be the richest vein of quartz ever discovered, taking the whole vein matter from wall to wall. Some of the ledge matter was so rich that it has been worked in a mortar at the mine. A lot of two hundred and fifty pounds yielded one thousand eight hundred dollars.
The completion of the Utah and Northern to Blackfoot, early in the spring of 1879, brought the Bay-horse district within one hundred and fifty miles, and the Yankee Fork within one hundred and ninety miles, of railroad communication. In the spring and summer of 1879 people rushed in by the hundreds, and Challis, Custer City, Bonanza, Clayton, Crystal City and became prosperous mining camps. The Sawtooth and Wood river sections in Alturas county now began to attract attention, but were not thoroughly prospected till the following year. To these districts incidental reference is made on other pages of this volume.
One of the most remarkable mining excitements in history was the great Coeur d’Alene stampede of 1884. Gold had been discovered in that country in former years, but no developments had ever been made, owing to the remoteness of the locality. In 1883 a man named Pritchard discovered and located the “Widow’s Claim,” which proved of more than average richness. Further discoveries were made, which were rapidly noised abroad. From the heart of the Coeur d’Alene mountains, though distant only forty miles from the Northern Pacific, came the most exaggerated accounts. The whole region was subjected to an artificial “boom,” at a most inopportune time. In February of 1884, over the snows came trudging an eager multitude, who would harken neither to the voice of reason nor the warnings of experience. The mails were flooded with fantastic descriptions of this latest El Dorado. Newspaper correspondents from all over the land came flocking hither, and contributed to give further publicity to a region already overadvertised. Circulars were sent broadcast all over the land, giving the most glowing accounts of nuggets of fabulous wealth that could be had almost for the seeking. It was declared that old prospectors and miners, conversant with the history of the banner districts of California, Montana, and Colorado, would stand amazed at the new fields so unequaled in richness and extent; that twenty-five dollars to forty dollars per man per day were being panned out in the gulches; that the fields being practically in-exhaustible, rendered impossible any overcrowding of the district; that wherever the bed-rock had been uncovered, beautiful rich dust was being “scooped up” by the lucky owners; that no machinery or capital was required; that limitless quartz ledges were being struck “fairly glistening with free gold.” The result was that in a few weeks, early in the spring of 1884, the forest land at the junction of Eagle and Pritchard creeks became metamorphosed into a city of five thou-sand restless inhabitants, all waiting for the snow to disappear. The effect of overadvertising soon became manifest in the reaction that took place after the summer had fairly set in. A hasty exodus followed, and hundreds left on foot, “packing their blankets” and cursing the country. The region was even more misrepreiented by the unsuccessful adventurers, who, in spite of incontestable facts, declared there “was no gold in the country.” Many of the claims got into litigation, which retarded their development. The July term of court at Eagle City settled the disputed titles, when the work of development was fairly begun, and since which time the region has been keeping up a steady output. Business has settled down to a legitimate basis, and the country is being systematically opened up.
Major N. H. Camp, an early superintendent of the United States assay office at Boise, furnished the following description of the Snake river gold-fields, and the record, though written a number of years ago, is well worthy of perpetuation in this work:
It is popularly supposed that the occupation of a gold-miner is most favorably adapted to the development of those qualities called for by a bold and ad-venturous life, uncheered by the amenities of social civilization, untrammeled by its laws and, intercourse between its members, unlubricated by the presence of (air woman. What wonder, then, that gold-seeking should be the chief interest of this lonely region! The character of its banks forbids the construction of towns, while the lack of navigation facilities prevents this great water-way from ministering to the transportation needs of the neighboring stock-farms, sage prairies, or the supplying of the isolated mining camps. It is in such localities that gold delights to reward the pains taken by the lonesome prospector, and here does he find, not only the coveted treasure, but in such quantities as will reward his patient search at a minimum of expense. The only drawback is the extremely small size of the particles of gold; coarse gold is unknown on Snake river, but from Eagle Rock, in Oneida county, to the mouth of the river, gold can be found of such exactly similar metallurgical conditions, both as to fineness in grade (shape of grains being scale-like in form) and fineness in character of grains, that it might have come from either end of the river. On the afifluents of this river gold is also found; but even within half a mile of its mouth, “Boise” gold sinks to an assay fineness of from 720 to 780, while that from the river under review will assay over 900 and even 990. The shape of the grains is noticeably a feature of Snake River gold, being so flat and scale-like that the precious metal is often seen floating on the surface of the water! while gold from any of the feeder streams assumes more the character of shot gold, is coarser, and much more easily harnessed to the service of man. Its extremely small size is also a distinguishing mark of this gold. The writer has seen a gold-pan full of the gold-bearing sands, which, in the hands of an experienced prospector, soon showed its bottom as if gilt by a practiced workman. Out of curiosity, an attempt was made to count the “colors,” but when the sum of fourteen hundred was reached, the business was given up in disgust there were so many left to count!
Nor has nature herself been niggardly in furnishing facilities to man for mining these rich deposits. From many a fissure in the canyon walls along the banks of this wonderful river fall “springs” some of which are the size of young rivers as they are called. Issuing ‘ from one to two hundred feet above the level of the river, they only require to be conducted to the gravel bars to assume the duties of washing out gold. At other points rivers fall into the Snake, along whose banks it is only necessary to dig the necessary ditches, to convert the streams into the obedient and useful servants of mankind. In many cases, however, these ditches have to be blasted out of the lava rock, and the dams across the smaller streams are costly and tedious structures, making the enterprise, when completed, as dear to the heart as something attained only at great cost of time, labor and capital, as in one instance where a miner for two years contented himself with the privations and solitude of his cabin, mining in a small way, but devoting all his savings and leisure to the construction of a ditch, despite the sneers and ridicule of his neighbors. The ditch was completed in the spring of 1884, and now he harvests three thousand dollars per month in virgin gold.
Where springs gush from the canyon walls in sufficient volume to wash gravel for gold, the expense of a moderately profitable mining outfit, comprising say four hundred yards of ditching, seventy-twp feet of fluming, thirty-six feet of sluice boxes, twelve feet of grizzlies (sheets of perforated iron), two amalgamating plates, a concentrating tank three by six, and twenty-four feet of burlap tables ought to be not less than $550 to $600; add the cost of one month’s subsistence. $40, for two men, and the services of a laborer, and about the cost of a small mining establishment on this river is told. This outfit ought to pay for itself in three months, and yield a moderate profit twelve to fifteen per cent, per annum in excess of working expenses. “High bars” there are too, prospecting rich, but until some inexpensive method is discovered of raising, and utilizing for mining purposes, the water of Snake river, these spots must remain closed to the avarice of man. A patent motor has been devised for raising water by using the force of the river current, but experiment has failed to demonstrate its economy, or to bring its price within the means of the moderately wealthy.
But it is not only the production of fruits, and the golden results of placer mining, that the broadway of Idaho relies on to attract to her borders those energies necessary in the development of a hitherto terra uncognita. In the range of mountains through which our river cuts her way, forming here the western boundary of Washington county, are rich deposits of copper and silver, assays of which show from twenty-six to sixty-eight per cent, of copper, and from nine to one hundred and sixty-three ounces of silver per ton. This region is now brought into communication with the rest of the United States by the railroad system rendered available by the meeting of the Oregon Short Line and the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company’s lines. The Wood river country has proved an immense silver success; but it is predicted that the copper region of western Idaho will largely exceed it in bringing material prosperity to those of limited means coming in to work the bowels of the earth for the riches to be extracted therefrom. To such, Idaho must look in large measure for the permanence of her prosperity, and it is with a view of attracting their attention to our territory that this is written.
In view of the developments which later years have brought forth, this retrospect is doubly interesting.