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Collection: Tribal Villages

Explanation of Plot of Cheyenne Village Site on Sheyenne River – Tributary of Red River

Dr. O. G. Libby, of University, N. D., and Dr. A. B. Stout, of the New York Botanical Garden, who ten years ago examined this old Cheyenne village site on the Sheyenne River, most kindly consent that I should announce the results of their work there; and Dr. Melvin R. Gilmore, Curator of the Historical Society of North Dakota, where the maps and notes on this village site are deposited, agrees that the material should be published. This generous permission enables me to add to this paper the maps made in 1908 by Dr. Libby and Dr. Stout, as well as their recorded notes, which furnish some further details as to the village as they found it. The matter is of interest to students of the Plains tribes, who will be grateful to these gentlemen for the opportunity to learn the results of their inquiry. The north face of village (fig. 33) is on slope of about 45° to old river bed some 40 feet below. To east a gentle slope extends. A shallow and gently sloping ravine separates village from a round topped broad knoll by road evidently the burial ground. To the south a gently sloping level area extends. To the west a trail can be traced about 20 rods. It extends down slope to edge of marsh land where a spring is now located. No large,...

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Early Cheyenne Villages

Information as to the region occupied by the Cheyenne in early days is limited and for the most part traditional. Some ethnologists declare that Indian tradition has no historical value, but other students of Indians decline to assent to this dictum. If it is to be accepted we can know little of the Cheyenne until they are found as nomads following the buffalo over the plains. There is, however, a mass of traditional data which points back to conditions at a much earlier date quite different from these. In primitive times they occupied permanent earth lodges and raised crops of...

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Elahsa

Elahsa (‘village of the great willows’). A former Hidatsa village on the north bank of Knife River, North Dakota, about 3 miles from Missouri River. Alternate Spellings: Biddahtsi-Awatiss – Maxmillian, Voy. dans l’int de l’Am. III, 3, 1843. Eláh-sá – Maxmillian, Trav., 178, 1843. Hidatsa – Matthews, Ethnog. Hidatsa, 38,...

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Aucocisco

The name of the territory about Casco Bay and Presumpscot River, in the area now included in Cumberland County, Maine. It was also sometimes applied to those Abnaki Indians by whom it was occupied. Since the section was settled at an early date by the whites, the name soon dropped out of use as applied to the Indians, or rather it was changed to “Casco,” but this was a mere local designation, not a tribal distinction, as the Indians referred to were Abnaki. The proper form of the word is given by Willis as Uh-kos-is-co, ‘crane’ or ‘heron,’ the first syllable being guttural. These birds still frequent the bay. It is said by Willis to have been the Indian name of Falmouth (Portland),...

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Kosotshe

Kosotshe. A former village of the Tututni, identified by Dorsey with the Luckkarso nation of Lewis and Clark, who placed them on the Oregon coast south of the Kusan territory in 1805, and estimated their population at 1,200.  Fifty years later Kautz said their village was on Flores Creek, Oregon. Dorsey fixed their habitat north of Rogue River between Port Orford and Sixes Creek. 1Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 728, 1907. The Shalalahs, of whom we know nothing except their numbers, which are computed at 1,200 souls. Then follow: The Luckasos 2The Luckasos, elsewere Luckkarsos, are known only through Lewis and Clark. The name is probably from Yu-qais´, an Alsea village (Yakonian family). , of about the same number; and The Hannakalals, whom we estimate at 600 souls. 3Lewis, Coules, Clark and Jefferson; History of the expedition under the command of Lewis and Clark, 761, 1893. Lukkarso, 1,200 in 1820, Coast of the Pacific, South of Columbia River, beyond the Shallalah. 4Drake, The Aboriginal Races of North America, 12, 1859. In connexion with the subject of Indian treaties, I will here remark, that it is peculiarly unfortunate that so much delay occurs in getting the decision of the President and Senate upon the treaties negotiated with the Oregon Indians. It is exceedingly difficult—nay, impossible— to convey to them intelligibly the causes of delay on my part in fulfilling the...

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Guacata

Guacata – An inland Calusa village on Lake “Mayaimi” or Okechobee, south Florida, about 1570. Elsewhere in his memoir Fontaneda refers to it as a distinct but subordinate tribe. 1Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 508, 1907. Guacata, Cuacata – In one place Fontaneda speaks of this as a town on Lake Mayaimi (Okeechobee) and elsewhere as one of the provinces of the east coast. A Spanish document in the Lowery collection gives it as a place “in the land of Ays.” It is possible that these people lived on St. Lucie River and camped farther inland than most of...

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Incha Tribe

Incha. An unidentified tribe said to have lived where there were Spanish settlements and to have been at war with the Mantons (Mento) of Arkansas River in 1700. 1Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 604, 1905. Alternate Spellings: Icca – Iberville (1702) in Margry, Déc., IV, 561, 1880. Incha – Ibid., 599.   Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 604,...

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Itomapa Tribe

Itomapa. Mentioned by Martin 1Hist. La., i, 252, 1820 as a tribe, on the west side of the lower Mississippi, which sent a deputation to the village of the Acolapissa in 1717 to meet Bienville. Consult: Ibitoupa Tribe Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Hist. La., i, 252,...

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Inchi

Inchi (In′tci, ‘stone lodge’). A village occupied by the Kansa in their migration up Kansas River. J. O. Dorsey, inf’n, 1882. 1Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 604, 1905. Footnotes:   [ + ] 1. ↩ Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 604,...

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Native American Town of Imaha

Imaha – A Quapaw village mentioned by La Metairie in 1682 and by Iberville in 1699, and visited by La Harpe in 1719. It was situated on a south west branch of Arkansas River. In the wars and contentions of the 18th and 19th centuries some of the Quapaw tribe fled from their more northerly villages and took refuge among the Caddo, finally becoming a recognized division of the confederacy. These were called Imaha, but whether the people composing this division were from the village Imaha, mentioned by the early French travelers, is not absolutely known. The people of the Imaha division of the Caddo confederacy for some time retained their own language, which was Siouan. 1Hodge, Handbook of American Indians, 609, 1907. I’maha—a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwâpâ, who lived with the Kä’dohadä’cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwâpâ were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwâpâ who lived “up stream” (U’mañhañ) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. 2Mooney, 14th Rep. B. A. E., 1092, 1896. (A. C. F.) Alternate Spellings: Imaham – La Harpe (1719) in French,...

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Mikasuki Tribe

Mikasuki Indians, Mikasuki Tribe. A former Seminole town in Leon County, Florida, on the west shore of Miccosukee lake, on or near the site of the present Miccosukee. The name has been applied also to the inhabitants as a division of the Seminole. They spoke the Hitchiti dialect, and, as appears from the title of B. Smith’s vocabulary of their language, were partly or wholly emigrants from the Sawokli towns on lower Chattahoochee River, Alabama. The former town appears to have been one of the ‘red’ or ‘bloody’ towns, for at the beginning of the Seminole troubles of 1817 its inhabitants stood at the head of the hostile element and figured conspicuously as “Red Sticks,” or “Batons Rouges,” having painted high poles, the color denoting war and blood. At this time they had 300 houses, which were burned by Gen. Jackson. There were then several villages near the lake, known also as Mikasuki towns, which were occupied almost wholly by Negroes. In the Seminole war of 1835-42 the people of this town became noted for their courage, dash, and...

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Michilimackinac

Michilimackinac Indians (Mǐshǐma‛kǐnung, ‘place of the big wounded person,’ or ‘place of the big lame person.’ – W. J). A name applied at various times to Mackinac Island in Mackinac County, Michigan; to the village on this island; to the village and fort at Pt St Ignace on the opposite mainland, and at an early period to a considerable extent of territory in the upper part of the lower peninsula of Michigan. It is derived from the name of a supposed extinct Algonquian tribe, the Mishinimaki or Mishinimakinagog. According to Indian tradition and the Jesuit Relations, the Mishinimaki formerly had their headquarters at Mackinac Island and occupied all the adjacent territory in Michigan. They are said to have been at one time numerous and to have had 30 villages, but in retaliation for an invasion of the Mohawk country they were destroyed by the Iroquois. This must have occurred previous to the occupancy of the country by the Chippewa on their first appearance in this region. A few were still there in 1671, but in Charlevoix’s time (1744) none of them remained. When the Chippewa appeared in this section they made Michilimackinac island one of their chief centers, and it retained its importance for a long period. In 1761 their village was said to contain 100 warriors. In 1827 the Catholic part of the inhabitants, to the number of...

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