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Collection: Dictionary of Chinook Jargon

English to Chinook Dictionary

Above, ságh-a-lie. Absolve, mam’-ook stoh. Acorns, káh-na-way. Across, in’-a-ti. Afraid, kwass. After, Afterwards, kim’-ta. Again, weght. All, kon’-a-way. Alms, e’-la-han, or e-lann’. Also, weght. Although, kégh-tchie. Always, kwáh-ne-sum. American, Boston. Amusement, hee’-hee. And, pee. Anger, Angry, sol’-leks. Apple, le pome. Apron, kéh-su, or ki’-su. Arbutus uva ursi, lahb. Arrive at, ko. Arrow, ka-li’-tan. As if, káh-kwa spose. At, ko’-pa. Aunt, kwal’h. Awl, shoes keep’-wot. Axe, la-hash’. Bad, me-sáh-chie; pe-shuk’. Bag, le sak. Ball, le bal. Bargain, máh-kook; húy-húy. Bark, s’ick-skin. Barrel, ta-mo’-litsh. Basket, o’-pe-kwan. Beads, ka-mo’-suk. Bear (black), chet’-woot; its’woot; (grizzly), si-am’. Beat, to, kok’-shut. Beaver, ee’-na. Because, kéh-wa. Become, to, cháh-ko. Bed, bed. Before, e’-lip, or el’-ip. Behind, kim’-ta. Bell, tin’-tin. Belly, ya-kwáh-tin. Below, kee’-kwil-lie. Belt, la san-jel’. Berries, o’-lil-lie; o’-lal-lie. Best, e’-lip closhe. Bird, kal-lak’-a-la. Biscuit, le bis’-kwee. Bitter, klihl. Black, klale. Blackberries, klik’-a-muks. Blanket, pa-see’-sie. Blind, ha’-lo se-áh-host. Blood, pil-pil. Blow out, mam’-ook poh. Blue (light), spo’-oh. Blue (dark), klale. Blunder, to, tsee’-pie. Board, la plash. Boat, boat. Bob-tailed; a bob-tailed horse, sis’-ki-you. Boil, to, lip’-lip. Bone, stone. Borrow, to, a-yáh-whul. Bosom (female), to-toosh. Both, kun’-a-moxt. Bottle, la-boo-ti’. Bow, o’-pitl-kegh. Bowl, oos’-kan. Box, la ca-sett’. Bracelet, klik’-wal-lie. Brave, skoo’-kum tum’-tum. Bread, le pan. Break, to, kok’-shut. Breasts, to-toosh’. Breech clout, o’-poots sill. Bridle, la bleed. Bright, to-wágh. Broad, kluk-ulh’. Broom, bloom. Brother, káhp-ho, if elder than the speaker; ow, if younger. Male cousins the same. Brother-in-law,...

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Chinook to English Dictionary

Ah-ha, adv. Common to various tribes. Yes. Expression of simple assent. On Puget Sound, E-ÉH. Ah’n-kut-te, or Ahn-kot-tie, adv. Chinook, ANKUTTI. Formerly; before now. With the accent prolonged on the first syllable, a long time ago. Ex. Ahnkutte lakit sun, four days ago; Tenas ahnkutte, a little while since. Al-áh, interj. Expression of surprise. Ex. Alah mika chahko! ah, you’ve come! Al-kie, adv. Chinook, ALKEKH. Presently; in a little while; hold on; not so fast. Al’-ta , adv. Chinook, ALTAKH. Now; at the present time. A-mo’-te, n. Chinook, AMUTE; Clatsop, KLABOTÉ. The strawberry. An-áh , interj. An exclamation denoting pain, displeasure, or depreciation. Ex. Anah nawitka mika halo shem, ah, indeed you are without shame. On Puget Sound, Ad-de-dáh. Ats , n. Chinook, idem; Yakama, ATSE (Pandosy). A sister younger than the speaker. In the original, only when used by her brother. A-yáh-whul , v. Chihalis, ATAHWUL. To lend; borrow. Ay-kéh-nam. See EH-KAH-NAM.   Bé-be, n., v. French. A word used towards children; probably a repetition of the first syllable of BAISER. A kiss; to kiss. Bed, n. English, idem. A bed. Bit, or Mit, n. English, BIT. A dime or shilling. Bloom, n. English, BROOM. A broom. Mamook bloom, to sweep. Boat, n. English, idem. A boat, as distinguished from a canoe. Bos’-ton, n., adj. An American; American. A name derived from the hailing-place of the first trading-ships...

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Twenty-one Analogies between the Chinook and other Native Languages

Setting aside interjections, common in a more or less modified form to several adjoining tribes, twenty-one words of those given in this vocabulary present noticeable analogies between the Chinook and other native languages. They are as follows: English Chinook Hailtzuk and Belbella salmon berries klalilli olalli   English Chinook and Clatsop Nootka (Jewitt and Cook) water tl’tsuk: tl’chukw chauk: chahak   English Chinook Cowlitz Kwantlen Selish six tákhum tukh’um tuckhum’ táckan   English Chinook Chihalis Nisqually deep kellippe kluputl klep glad kwan kwal (“tame”) proud eyútl júil demon ichiatku tsiatko tsiatko black bear eitchhut, chetwut crow skaka skaka oyster klokhklokh chetlókh klokhklokh game of “hands” itlokum setlokum   English Chinook Yakama and Klikatat certainly nawitka n’witka always kwanisum kwálisim younger sister ats atse road wehut wiet (“far”) barrel tamtúlitsh tamolitsh buffalo emúsmus músmus coyote itálipus talipa (“gray fox”) mouse kholkhol khóilkhoil bread tsapelil saplil needle okwépowa kapus (“a pin”) The Clatsop (Klátsop) is merely a dialect of the Chinook (Tchinúk); the Cowlitz (Káualitsk), Kwantlen, Chihalis (Tsihélis), and Nisqually (N’skwáli), are severally languages belonging to the Sélish family. The Yakama and Klikatat are dialects of one of the Sahaptin languages; and the Tokwaht (Tokwát), Nittinat, and Makah (Maká), quoted in the dictionary, are dialects of the Nootka (Nútka), of which the Hailtzuk or Belbella (variously spelled Haeeltzuk and Hailtsa) is probably the northern type. It thus appears that, with two...

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Words Constituting the Jargon

The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been variously stated. Many formerly employed have become in great measure obsolete, while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at the Dalles of the Columbia, various terms are common which would not be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the following selection, I have included all those which, on reference to a number of vocabularies, I have found current at any of these places, rejecting, on the other hand, such as individuals, partially acquainted with the native languages, have employed for their own convenience. The total number falls a little short of five hundred words. An analysis of their derivations gives the following result: Chinook including Clatsop 200 Chinook, having analogies with other languages 21 Interjections common to several 8 Nootka, including dialects 24 Chihalis, 32; Nisqually, 7 39 Klikatat and Yakama 2 Cree 2 Chippeway (Ojibwa) 1 Wasco (probably) 4 Kalapuya (probably) 4 By direct onomatopoeia 6 Derivation unknown, or undetermined 18 French, 90; Canadian, 4 94 English 67 I had no opportunity of original investigation into the Nootka proper, but from the few words in different published vocabularies, and from some imperfect manuscript ones in my possession of the Tokwaht, Nittinat, and Makah dialects, have ascertained the number above given. Some of the unascertained words probably also belong to that language. Neither was I able...

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Analogy between the Nootkan and Columbian or Chinook

Dr. Scouler’s analogy between the Nootkan and “Columbian,” or Chinook, was founded on the following words: English Tlaoquatch and Nutka Columbian plenty *aya *haya no *wik *wake water tchaak chuck good *hooleish *closh bad *peishakeis *peshak man *tchuckoop tillicham woman *tlootsemin *clootchamen child *tanassis *tanass now tlahowieh clahowiah come *tchooqua *sacko slave mischemas *mischemas what are you doing *akoots-ka-*mamook ekta-*mammok what are you saying *au-kaak-*wawa ekta-*wawa let me see *nannanitch *nannanitch sun *opeth ootlach sky *sieya  *saya fruit  *chamas *camas to sell *makok *makok understand *commatax *commatax * But of these, none marked with an asterisk belong to the Chinook or any of its dialects. The greater part of them are undoubtedly Nootkan, though there are errors in the spelling and, in some instances, in the meaning. Of the rest, the Nootkan “tchaak” and the Chinook “tl’tsuk” alone presents an analogy. “Klahowiah” does not mean “now,” nor do I believe it is Nootkan, in any sense. It is, as explained in the dictionary, the Chinook salutation, “How do you,” “Good-bye,” and is supposed to be derived from the word for “poor”, “miserable”. “Mischemas” is not Chinook, and is probably not Nootkan. With the exception of Franchere, whose short vocabulary was published by Mr. Gallatin, and Mr. Hale, all the writers mentioned by Ludwig who have given specimens of the Chinook language, have presented it in its Jargon form, more...

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Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon

In the early 1800’s the Smithsonian Institution printed a small vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon, furnished by Dr. B. R. Mitchell, of the U.S. Navy, and prepared, as we afterwards learned, by Mr. Lionnet, a Catholic priest, for his own use while studying the language at Chinook Point. It was submitted by the Institution, for revision and preparation for the press, to the late Professor W.W. Turner. Although it received the critical examination of that distinguished philologist, and was of use in directing attention to the language, it was deficient in the number of words in use, contained many which did not properly belong to the Jargon, and did not give the sources from which the words were derived. Mr. Hale had previously given a vocabulary and account of this Jargon in his “Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedition,” which was noticed by Mr. Gallatin in the Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. II. He, however, fell into some errors in his derivation of the words, chiefly from ignoring the Chihalis element of the Jargon, and the number of words given by him amounted only to about two hundred and fifty. A copy of Mr. Lionnet’s vocabulary having been sent to the author, with a request to make such corrections as it might require, he concluded not merely to collate the words contained in this and other...

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