Collection: Descriptive Catalogue

Winnebago Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Winnebago are a branch of the great Dakota family, calling themselves O-tchun-gu-rah, and by the Sioux, Hotanke, or the Big-voiced People; by the Chippeway, Winnebagonk whence their common English name a word meaning men from the fetid waters. The French knew them as La Puans (the Stinkers), supposed to have been given them in consequence of the great quantity of decaying and putrid fish in their camps when first visited by white men. With some others they formed the van of the eastward migration of the Dakotas, penetrating apparently some distance, but were forced back to Green Bay. This was some time previous to 1670, as the map of the French Jesuit missionaries, dated 1671, styles Green Bay the “Bayo des Puans,” and the map accompanying Marquette’s journal, dated 1681, notes a village of the “Puans” as near the north end of Winnebago Lake, on the west side.* They were then numerous and powerful, holding in check the neighboring Algonkin tribes, but soon after an alliance of tribes attacked and very nearly exterminated them. Became firm friends of the French until the Revolution, when they joined the English; made peace with the colonists afterward, but sided with the English again in 1812. In 1820 they numbered about 4,500, and were living in five villages on Winnebago Lake and fourteen on Rock River. By a treaty in 1832 they...

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Wyandot Indian Tribe, Photo Descriptions

The Wyandot, or Huron, a western Iroquois tribe, lived originally on the shores of Lake Huron, where they raised tobacco to such an extent that they were called Petem, or Tobacco Indians. Were driven west to Wisconsin and to the shores of Lake Superior, and by the Sioux back again to the neighbor hood of Detroit, where they remained up to the close of the wars between the United States and England. In 1832 ceded all their lands in Ohio to the Government, and 687 were re moved to Kansas, where they have since resided, at the junction of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers. In 1855 many became citizens, and had their lauds divided among them, the others being removed to the Indian Territory, where they now are, numbering 258 souls. Some of the Wyandot remained near Detroit, and by treaty with the English government were assigned a reservation on the Detroit River of 23,600 acres, where they yet remain, but have declined within the present century from 200 to 72. Their hereditary king remained with the Canadian baud. List of illustrations 981. Mathew Mudeater. Head chief of the Wyandot, and a delegate in 1875 to Washington, with power to settle all complications between his tribe and the Government growing out of sundry treaties. Was born in 1813, in Canada. 982. Nicholas Cotter. A councilor in his tribe, and...

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Seminole Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

“The Isti-Semole (wild men) who inhabit the peninsula of Florida (1836) are pure Muskogee, who have gradually detached themselves from the confederacy, but were still considered members of it till the United States treated with them as with an independent nation. The name of Seminoles was given to them on account of their being principally hunters and attending but little to farming.” Were very hostile to the Americans up to the cession of Florida in 1819, but a treaty was finally made with them in 1823. Other treaties followed looking to their removal westward, in attempting to carry out which a war ensued, lasting from 1835 until 1842. Nearly 2,000 had then been removed, leaving about 300 in Florida, and 145 of these, under Billy Bowlegs, joined the western band in the Indian Territory in 1858. Had much trouble in getting settled upon a reservation, locating finally upon a tract of 200,000 acres bought of the Creeks, where they now number 2,553 a prosperous and civilized tribe. List of illustrations 714. O-LAC-TO-MI-CO. Billy Bowlegs Photo. The well-known and famous leader of the Seminoles in the Florida war, 1835-’42, but was finally compelled to remove with the remnants of his tribe to the Indian Territory.        ...

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Utah Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Utah, Yuta, or Ute, as the name is variously written, are a large tribe belonging to the great Shoshone family* and who occupy the mountainous portion of Colorado, with portions of Utah, New Mexico, and Nevada. Those living in the mountains where game abounds have a fine physical development, are brave and hardy, and comparatively well to do; while those who inhabit the sterile plains of the Salt Lake Basin are miser ably poor, and spiritless. We derive our first knowledge of the Utah from the early Spanish explorers, who came in contact with them on the upper waters of the Rio Grande del Norte, and who gave them the reputation of being a brave and war like tribe. Their country bordered that of the Navajos of the south (the Rio San Juan now dividing them), who formerly ranged as far north as the waters of the Grand, but were crowded back by the Utah. A continuous warfare was kept up between the tribes, in which the Navajo were worsted. The Utah were employed against them by the Government at the time of their expulsion from their country in 1863. The tribe is divided into many bands, which are continually changing, but as now recognized are as follows: Capote, Weeminuche, Tabeguache, Muache, Grand River, Yampa, Uintah, Peah, Goship, and Mouache. The tribe now numbers in the aggregate 5,260....

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Waco and Wichita Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

Waco 742. Long Soldier. (Front.) 743. Long Soldier. (Profile.) Wichita 744. Assadawa. (Front.) 745. Assadawa. (Profile.) 746. Esquitzchew. (Front.) 747. Esquitzchew. (Profile.) 748. Black Horse. 165, 167. Buffalo Goad. (Front.) 166, 168. Buffalo Goad. (Profile.) Was one of the great delegation of chiefs from the Indian Territory in 1872, among whom were Little Raven, Little Robe, Bird Chief, &c. He impressed all as being a man of more than usual ability and...

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Warm Springs Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Warm Springs Indians, so named from their location about the thermal springs in Northern Oregon, are related to the Walla Walla, and number 187, on a reservation of some 725 square miles, on which are also some 300 Wasco and Tenino. The combined tribes cultivate about 800 acres of the land. They are very well off in live stock and derive some of their income by lumbering. All wear citizen’s dress, many have good comfortable houses, and support two schools, with an attendance of about 50 scholars. They assisted in the operations against the Modoc in 1872, raising a company of scouts for that purpose, who rendered good service. List of illustrations. 1058. Cappolas. A Boney Man. Took a prominent part in the Modoc war, and distinguished himself by the capture of Captain Jack in the lava-beds. Height, 5.5½; circumference of head, 22¾. 1061. Shaka. Little Beaver. A sergeant in the company that captured Captain Jack. Height, 5.8; circumference of head, 22 5/8. 1056. Ske-Metze. Chopped up. Familiarly known as “Billy.” Height, 5.4½; circumference of head, 22 7/8. 1054. Ke-Hey-A-Kin. Crooked Stick. Height, 5.6½; circumference of head, 21¾. 1063. Histo. Clam Fish. Height, 5.7,  circumference of head, 22 7/8. 1059. Wey-A-Tat-Han. Owl. The married man of the party, his wife accompanying him on his travels. Was wounded in the lava-beds, and with five others were the scouts who...

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Wasco Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Wasco, like the Warm Springs Indians, are related to the Walla Walla, and through them to the Sahaptin family. The name signifies “basin,” and the tribe derives its name, traditionally, from the fact that formerly one of their chiefs, his wife having died, spent much of his time in making cavities or basins in the soft rock for his children to fill with water and pebbles, and thereby amuse themselves.” They came originally from around the Dalles. Are associated with the Warm Springs and Tenino on a reservation in Oregon just south of the Columbia. Now number 263, profess the Christian religion, and are more advanced in civilization than any tribe in the State. All the tribes of this reservation are self-supporting, deriving about half their subsistence by agriculture and the rest by fishing and hunting. List of illustrations. 1062. Kle-Mat-Chosny. Agate Arrow-Point. Is a chief and a member of the Presbyterian Church, and a zealous worker for the spiritual welfare of his people. Height, 5.6¾; circumference of head, 21¾. 1060. Stat-Tla-Ka. Pole Cat. Height, 5.4; circumference of head, 20 5/8. 1055. Oscar Mark, or Little Vessel. Height, 5.5; circumference of head,...

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Shoshone Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Shoshone, or Snake, are a tribe inhabiting the country about the head-waters of the Green and Snake Rivers, and a part of a great family of the same name, including the Comanche, Utah, and Kiowa. They occupy nearly all of the great Salt Lake Basin, to the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada, and extend also easterly to Texas. The Shoshone proper are divided into many bands under various names, the most important being the Buffalo-Eaters, of Wind River; the Mountain Sheep-Eaters, of Salmon River, and the Western Shoshone, near Boise, separated from the rest of the tribe by the kindred Bannack, numbering in the aggregate, with some lesser tribes on the Humboldt, between five and six thousand souls. Our first knowledge of them was through Lewis and Clarke, who found them west of the Rocky Mountains on the waters of the Columbia, but are supposed to have at one time inhabited the plain-country east of the mountains. James Irwin, United States Indian agent, in his report to the Commissioner, says: “They emigrated north about 1781, and proceeded to the upper waters of Green River under a leader or chief called Shoshone, or Snake. At this point they divided, one party going over on the Oregon slope, who are now called Western Shoshones, and have an agency in common with the Bannack at Fort Hall. The other party...

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Temiculsa and Tawacanie Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

A small tribe in the Indian Territory associated with the Caddo, Kiowa, and others on the Wichita agency. They are well advanced toward civilization. List of illustrations 738-739. Dave. 740-741. Caw-Lac-Its-Ca. Son of Dave. Temiculsa A small band of Indians living in the southern portion of California, who are extensively intermarried with the Mexicans. They are a thrifty, prosperous people, fully able to take good care of themselves, and are not under the care of any agent. List of illustrations 993. Ka-Lek. Hanging. Chief of the Temicula, and delegate recently to Washington, to seek from the General Government the restitution of some of their land, from which this tribe had been ejected by the State government. Is a man of marked intelligence, and speaks Spanish fluently. Age, 45; height, 5.10; head, 23½; chest, 47½; weight, 245. 994. Andrew Magrand Temicula and Mexican half-breed. Age, 27. 995. John Clift Temicula and Mexican half-breed. Age,...

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Seneca Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

One of the Five Iroquois Nations in Western New York, comprising, originally, the Sinnekaas, as the Batch called them, (hence the word Seneca,) Onondaga, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Oneida. When first known to the French, were living on the south side of Lake Ontario, and engaged in a fierce war with their Algonkin neighbors. By conquest several other tribes became incorporated with them. Missions were established among them by the French as early as 1657. In 1763 the Seneca alone, of the Six Nations, joined in Pontiac’s league to extirpate the English. During the Revolution sided with the English, but made a peace in 1784, and during the second war remained loyal. Early in the century part of the tribe settled in Ohio, afterwards removing to the Indian Territory, where they now are to the number of 240. The New York Seneca still occupy the Alleghany, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda reserve of 66,000 acres, where they all live in good houses and have large, well-cultivated farms, and are in every way a civilized and well-regulated class of people. List of illustrations 1048. Dyar-Yo-Naä-Dar-Ga-Dah. One who Carries Hemlock Boughs on his Back. English name, Caster Redeye. Was born on the Alleghany reservation; belongs to the traditionary Bear clan. Is now President of the New York Seneca. Does not speak English, but is an eloquent speaker in his native tongue. Has been a...

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Shawnee Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Shawnees or Shawano are an erratic tribe of Algonkin stock, supposed to have been one primarily with the Kickapoo. Were first discovered in Wisconsin, but moved east ward, and, coming in contact with the Iroquois south of Lake Erie, were driven to the banks of the Cumberland. Some passed thence into South Carolina and Florida, and, by the early part of the eighteenth century, had spread into Pennsylvania and New York. At the close of the Spanish and English war those in Florida emigrated and joined the northern bands, and, again coming into contact with the Iroquois, were driven westward into Ohio. Joined in Pontiac’s uprising in 1763, and rallied under the English flag during the Revolution. In 1795 the main body of the tribe were on the Scioto, but some had already crossed the Mississippi and others south. Those in Missouri ceded their lands to the Government in 1825, and those in Ohio in 1831, for new homes in the’ Indian Territory. In 1854 the main body in the Indian Territory disbanded their tribal organization and divided their lands in severalty. The Eastern Shawnees are those who emigrated direct from Ohio to the Indian Territory, where they now are. They number 97, and are successful agriculturists. The Absentee Shawnees are those who, thirty-five years since, seceded from the main portion of the tribe in Kansas and located...

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Keechie Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

The Keechie, of whom there are now only a small remnant of about 90 in the Indian Territory, affiliated with the Wichita, Waco, and Tawacanie; were originally from Texas, and are supposed to be the Quitzies of the Spanish authorities of 1780. Even at that time they were a small tribe, numbering about 100 warriors. After the admission of Texas, were placed on a State reservation, where they remained undisturbed until 1859, when their presence became so distasteful to the ‘settlers that it became necessary to remove them. Land was leased from the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and the Keechie settled on it, building their villages of grass houses along the Canadian River. The breaking out of the civil war set them back, just as they were beginning to prosper, compelling another remove for safety. In 1867 they were restored to their lauds again, and since then have progressed rapidly in civilized pursuits. Like the Wichita and Waco, they are of the same stock as the Pawnee. List of illustrations 411. Knee-War-War, (front.) 412. Knee-War-War,...

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Pueblo Indian Tribe Photo Descriptions

A general name applied by the Spaniards to several tribes of semi-civilized Indians in what is now New Mexico. The term pueblo, in Spanish, literally means the people and their towns. They were first visited by Cabeza de Vaca in 1537, who conveyed the first authentic account of their villages to Mexico, which resulted, in 1540, in the expedition of Coronado. As nearly as can be ascertained at the present time, he visited and subdued the Pueblos in the neighborhood of Zuñi, along the Rio Grande, and the Moqui of the province of Tusayan; but only occupied the country two years. Were finally subdued in 1586, and the Spanish retained uninterrupted control, with the exception of the period of the insurrection of 1680, until the cession of the territory to the United States in 1847. At the time of Coronado’s visit they were as advanced as now, raising grain, vegetables, and cotton, and manufacturing fine blankets. Their houses are sometimes built of stone, but generally of adobe; are several stories in height three to five usually each one receding from the one below, leaving a terrace or walk. The general plan is a hollow square, although in some cases they are built in a solid mass, like a pyramid, six or eight stories in height. In each pueblo there are large rooms, sometimes under ground, for religious observances or...

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