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War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac sent ambassadors to inform him that their chief was not far off, and desired him to halt until he could see him “with his own eyes.” When Pontiac met the English officer, he demanded to know the business which had brought him into his country, and how he dared to enter it without his permission. The major told him he had no designs against the Indians, but only wished to expel the French; and at the same time, he delivered him several belts of wampum. Pontiac replied, “I stand in the path you travel until tomorrow morning,” and gave the major a belt. This communication was understood to mean, that the intruder was not to march further without his leave. Next day, the English detachment was plentifully supplied with provisions by the Indians, and Pontiac giving the commander the pipe of peace, assured him that he might pass through his country unmolested, and that he would protect him and his party. As an earnest of his friendship, he sent one...

Indian Treaties Waco to Yakima

Treaties for all tribes listed below. Names in (parentheses) are other names used for tribe Waco, Walla Walla, Wasco, Wea, Winnebago, Witchetaw, Wyandot and Yakima Tribes Waco Treaties (Wacoe) Treaty of May 15, 1846 Walla-Walla Treaties Treaty of June 25, 1855 Treaty of June 9, 1855 Treaty of November 15, 1865 Wasco Treaties Treaty of June 25, 1855 Treaty of November 15, 1865 Wea Treaties Treaty of August 3, 1795 Treaty of June 7, 1803 Treaty of August 21, 1805 Treaty of September 30, 1809 Treaty of October 26, 1809 Treaty of June 4, 1816 Treaty of October 2, 1818 Treaty of August 11, 1820 Treaty of October 29, 1832 Treaty of May 30, 1854 Treaty of February 23, 1867 Winnebago Treaties Treaty of June 3, 1816 Treaty of August 19, 1825 Treaty of August 11, 1827 Treaty of August 25, 1828 Treaty of August 1, 1829 Treaty of September 15, 1832 Treaty of November 1, 1837 Treaty of October 13, 1846 Treaty of February 27, 1855 Treaty of April 15, 1859 Treaty of March 8, 1865 Witchetaw Treaties (Wichita, Wicheta, Ouichita) Treaty of August 24, 1835 Treaty of May 15, 1846 Wyandot Treaties (Wyandotte, Wiandot) Treaty of January 21, 1785 Treaty of January 9, 1789 Treaty of August 3, 1795 Treaty of August 7, 1803 Treaty of July 4, 1805 Treaty of November 17, 1807 Treaty of November 25, 1808 Treaty of July 22, 1814 Treaty of September 8, 1815 Treaty of September 29, 1817 Treaty of September 17, 1818 Treaty of September 20, 1818 Treaty of January 19, 1832 Treaty of April 23, 1836 Treaty of March...

Treaty of November 1, 1837

Articles of a treaty made at the city of Washington, between Carey A. Harris, thereto specially directed by the President of the United States, and the Winnebago nation of Indians, by their chiefs and delegates. Article I.The Winnebago nation of Indians cede to the United States all their land east of the Mississippi river. Article II.The said Indians further agree to relinquish the right to occupy, except for the purpose of hunting a portion of the land held by them west of the Mississippi, included between that river and a line drawn from a point twenty miles distant there from on the southern boundary of the neutral ground to a point, equidistant from the said river, on the northern boundary thereof. But this stipulation shall not be so construed, as to invalidate their title to the said tract. Article III.The said Indians agree to remove within eight months from the ratification of this treaty, to that portion of the neutral ground west of the Mississippi, which was conveyed to them in the second article of the treaty of September 15th, [21st] 1832, and the United States agree that the said Indians may hunt upon the western part of said neutral ground until they shall procure a permanent settlement. Article IV.In consideration of the cession and relinquishment contained in the preceding articles, the United States agree to the following stipulations on their part. First. To set apart the sum of two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) for the following purposes: To pay to the individuals herein named the sum specified for each; To Nicholas Boilvin, six thousand dollars ($6,000); to the...

Treaty of September 15, 1832

Articles of a treaty made and concluded, at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, between the United States of America, by their Commissioners, Major General Winfield Scott of the United States’ Army, and his Excellency John Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, and the Winnebago nation of Indians, represented in general Council by the undersigned Chiefs, Headmen, and Warriors. Article I.The Winnebago nation hereby cede to the United States, forever, all the lands, to which said nation have title or claim, lying to the south and east of the Wisconsin river, and the Fox river of Green Bay; bounded as follows, viz: beginning at the mouth of the Pee-keetol a-ka river; thence up Rock river to its source; thence, with a line dividing the Winnebago nation from other Indians east of the Winnebago lake, to the Grande Chûte; thence, up Fox river to the Winnebago lake, and with the northwestern shore of said lake, to the inlet of Fox river; thence, up said river to lake Puckaway, and with the eastern shore of the same to its most southeasterly bend; thence with the line of a purchase made of the Winnebago nation, by the treaty at Prairie du Chêne, the first day of August, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, to the place of beginning. Article II.In part consideration of the above cession, it is hereby stipulated and agreed, that the United States grant to the Winnebago nation, to be held as other Indian lands are held, that part of the tract of country on the west side of the Mississippi, known, at present, as the Neutral ground, embraced...

Treaty of June 3, 1816

A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said states, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors of that portion of the Winnebago tribe or nation residing on the Ouisconsin river, of the other part. Whereas the undersigned chiefs and warriors, as well as that portion of the nation which they represent, have separated themselves from the rest of their nation, and reside in a village on the Ouisconsin river, and are desirous of returning to a state of friendly relations with the United States, the parties hereto have agreed to the following articles. Article I. Every injury or act of hostility, committed by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot; and all the friendly relations that existed between them before the late war, shall be, and the same are hereby, renewed. Article II. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and those they represent, do by these presents, confirm to the United States all and every cession of land heretofore made by their nation to the British, French, or Spanish government, within the limits of the United States, or their territories; and also, all and every treaty, contract, and agreement, heretofore concluded between the United States and the said tribe or nation, as far as their interest in the same extends. Article III. The undersigned chiefs and warriors as aforesaid, for themselves and those they represent, do hereby acknowledge themselves to be...

Treaty of August 1, 1829

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the Village of Prairie du Chien, Michigan Territory, on this first day of August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, between the United States of America, by their Commissioner, General John M’Neil, Colonel Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater, Esq., for and on behalf of said States, of the one part, and the Nation of Winnebaygo Indians of the other part. Article I. The said Winnebaygo nation hereby, forever, cede and relinquish to the said United States, all their right, title, and claim, to the lands and country contained within the following limits and boundaries, to wit: beginning on Rock River, at the mouth of the Pee-kee-tau-no or Pee-kee-tol-a-ka, a branch thereof; thence, up the Pee-kee-tol-a-ka, to the mouth of Sugar Creek; thence, up the said creek, to the source of the Eastern branch thereof; thence, by a line running due North, to the road leading from the Eastern blue mound, by the most Northern of the four lakes, to the portage of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers; thence, along the said road, to the crossing of Duck Creek; thence, by a line running in a direct course to the most Southeasterly bend of Lake Puck-a-way, on Fox River; thence, up said Lake and Fox River, to the Portage of the Wisconsin; thence, across said portage, to the Wisconsin river; thence, down said river, to the Eastern line of the United States’ reservation at the mouth of said river, on the south side thereof, as described in the second article of the treaty made at St. Louis, on the...

Illinois Indian Land

With the rapid increase of a white population between the Lakes and the Mississippi, which followed the conclusion of hostilities with England and her Indian allies, new difficulties began to arise between the natives and the settlers. Illinois and Wisconsin were inhabited by various tribes of Indians, upon terms of bitter hostility among themselves, but united in their suspicions and apprehensions at the unprecedented inroads of emigrants from the east. The Winnebago, dwelling in Wisconsin; the Pottawatomie, situated around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; and the Sac, (afterwards mingled with the Foxes, and usually coupled with that tribe,) of Illinois, principally located upon Rock River, were the most considerable of these north-western tribes. By various cessions, the United States acquired, in the early part of the present century, a title to extensive tracts of country, lying east of the Mississippi, and included in the present state of Illinois. The tribes who sold the land were divided in opinion; great numbers of the occupants of the soil were utterly opposed to its alienation, and denied the authority of the chiefs, by whose negotiation the sales or cessions were effected; and upon the parceling out and the sale by the United States government of this public property to private individuals, conflicting claims soon led to serious disturbances. In July, of 1830, a treaty was formed at Prairie du Chien, between United States commissioners and the tribes of the Iowas, Sioux, Omawha, Sacs and Foxes, &c., for the purpose of finally arranging the terms upon which the lands east of the Mississippi should be yielded up. The Sac chief, Keokuk, was...

Nebraska Land Patents – Winnebago Tribe

Patentee NameDateDoc. #Accession # ARMELL, PROSPER05/04/190938009-0958979 ARNELL, PROSPER05/04/190938009-0958979 ASHLEY, RILA05/19/191028521-10131342 BAPTISTE, JEROME09/01/1908115234-0810348 BEAR, EMMA LOGAN02/09/1911106332-11177076 BEAR, JOHN H10/04/1915547577492474 BEARSKIN, PAUL EDWARD07/03/1916627467536628 BIGBEAR, LOUIS02/17/19101479-10112217 BIGBEAR, LOUISA05/16/1916619611529017 BIRD, FANNY09/01/1908118287-0810368 BLACKHAWK, CHARLES09/01/1908130615-0810375 BLACKHAWK, MABEL08/12/1914442792425539 BRISTON, LETTIE HUNTER10/29/1914462390439079 BROWN, ANSON08/25/1914442375427081 BROWN, GEORGE02/17/19101478-10112216 CARPENTER, JOSEPH BROWN09/08/1908145254-0811660 CHAE-SKA-KAW02/17/19101296-10112214 CHAMP-GU-RAE-HE-KAW09/01/1908116582-0810351 CHEN-WE-CHE-HA-RIK-KAW09/01/1908119199-0810370 CLAY, JESSE11/06/1913369967363861 CLAY, JOHN01/07/1909191730-0837919 CLOUD, ALICE09/08/1908147209-0811658 CLOUD, HENRY CLARENCE01/21/1909197499-0841839 CLOUD, HENRY ROE02/17/19101296-10112214 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908115234-0810349 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908116582-0810355 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810361 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908119199-0810371 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908131160-0810376 CON-NO-KAW09/01/1908141248-0810478 CON-NO-KAW09/08/1908147205-0811655 CON-NO-KAW01/21/1909197499-0841839 CON-NO-KAW-CARAMONY09/01/1908116582-0810355 DECORA, CATHERINE09/01/1908141248-0810477 DECORA, CHARLES01/07/1909195232-0838129 DECORA, GEORGE01/07/1909191731-0837920 DECORA, HENRY09/01/1908115234-0810349 DECORA, HENRY C05/19/191028521-10131342 DECORA, JOHN09/08/1908147631-0811659 DECORA, JULIA03/29/190920455-0953898 DECORA, PETER04/30/1914418631402240 DECORA, PETER06/28/191048487-10141105 DECORA, SARAH06/28/191048487-10141105 EARTH, EDITH10/29/1908157512-0825553 ENUC-KA-NO-KAW10/29/1908157512-0825553 EWING, FRANK09/01/1908120296-0810373 FISHER, CHARLES10/29/1908163582-0825556 FRENCH, HENRY06/05/1912239938271523 FRENCHMAN, CHARLES07/21/1913344516347735 FRENCHMAN, MARIA02/17/19101477-10112215 FRENCHMAN, SALLIE02/17/1910175-10112211 GOODMAN, JOHN02/16/1914397966385507 GREEN CROW, CHARLEY10/29/1908155028-0825366 GREYHAIR, HARRISON09/01/1908117460-0810361 GREYHAIR, LEWIS05/19/1916617418529645 HA-GA-KAW02/17/19101479-10112217 HA-HAE-MONNE-WIN-KAW09/01/1908116582-0810353 HAE-NU-KAW07/06/191138903215406 HAE-NUC-KAU01/07/1909191715-0837918 HAE-NUC-KAU GREEN CROW10/29/1908155028-0825366 HAE-NUC-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810359 HAE-NUC-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810366 HAE-NUC-KAW10/11/190999316-0983664 HAE-NUC-KAW-WHITEBEAR10/11/190999316-0983664 HAMP-MONNE-SKA-KAW09/08/1908145254-0811660 HARDEN, SADIE09/01/1908115234-0810345 HARRIS, NETTIE F08/20/1913349448351580 HARRISON, WILLIAM09/01/1908117460-0810362 HE-CHA-NA-SEP-SKA-KAW01/07/1909195232-0838129 HE-ME-KA-YA-CHA-SA-GAH05/06/1915420892471665 HE-NU-KAW09/01/1908118287-0810368 HE-NU-KAW09/01/1908118300-0810369 HE-NU-KAW09/01/1908123052-0810476 HE-NU-KAW06/28/191048487-10141105 HE-NU-KAW-GREYHAIR09/01/1908116582-0810356 HE-NU-KAW-TREETOP 09/01/1908  118300-08 10369 HE-NUC-KAE-KAW09/01/1908115234-0810347 HE-NUC-KAE-KAW10/29/1908153268-0825550 HE-NUC-KAW09/01/1908116582-0810356 HEEN-HOTCH-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810360 HEEN-PE-WIN-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810365 HENRY, GEORGE02/01/191088248-09108625 HENRY, ROBERT02/01/191088248-09108626 HENSLEY, ALBERT05/27/1913330622337762 HENSLEY, ALBERT12/16/1913378083371848 HILL, GEORGE10/11/1912267114296095 HILL, GEORGE05/27/1913331257337763 HILL, GEORGE03/05/1914402136389684 HILL, JANE08/20/1913350773351582 HILL, SOLOMON08/20/1913350773351582 HINMAN, DAVID08/25/1914445490427082 HINMAN, ROBINSON09/01/1908116582-0810351 HINMAN, ROBINSON08/25/1914445490427082 HITTLE, ALEXANDER06/29/1914434420418281 HO-CHUNK-HUTTE-WIN-KAW09/01/1908116582-0810357 HO-JAH-NU-KAW10/29/1908160522-0825554 HO-NUCK-A-DAE-WONK-SHICK-KAW09/01/1908120296-0810373 HOLSTEN, BERTHA 09/01/1908116582-0810350 HOLSTEN, BERTHA09/01/1908141252-0810483 HORN, BENJAMIN09/01/1908131160-0810376 HOUTON, TAYLOR09/01/1908141248-0810479 HU-GA-KAU10/11/190999317-0983665 HUMP-HE-MA-HA-KAU05/13/191028518-10129369 HUNCH-SKA-KAW02/09/1911103197-11177074 ISH-CHAR-OH-UN-KAW09/01/1908117460-0810367 JAMES, HATTIE10/29/1908157512-0825551 JOHNSON, HENRY09/01/1908119199-0810370 JOHNSON, ISAAC05/13/191028518-10129369 JOHNSON, JOSEPH09/01/1908141249-0810481 JOHNSON, MAUD05/13/191028518-10129369 KAE-CHE-SHEP-SKAW09/01/1908141249-0810481 LAMERE, EMMA07/22/190968221-0973417 LAMERE, FLORENCE08/06/1908103220-086860 LAMERE, JOSEPH12/06/1916657992557522 LAMERE, JULIA07/11/191042882-10143803 LAMERE, UNICE12/06/1916657992557522 LEMMON, DOVIE M03/28/1912221886255731 LEMMON, GEORGE J03/28/1912221886255731 LEMMON, HENRY M03/28/1912221886255731 LEMMON, IRENE J05/19/191036825-10131343 LITTLE-WALKER, JOHN01/07/1909191715-0837918 LOGAN, ALBERT02/09/1911106332-11177076 LOGAN, BELLE02/09/1911106332-11177076 LOGAN, EMMA09/01/1908129529-0810374 LOGAN, JOHN02/09/1911106332-11177076 Patentee NameDateDoc. #Accession # LOGAN, JULIA02/09/1911106332-11177076 LOGAN, NETTIE02/09/1911106332-11177076 LOGAN, NETTIE09/08/1908143477-0811657 LOGAN, RICHARD02/09/1911106332-11177076 LOGAN, RICHARD09/08/1908145254-0811661 LONE TREE, ALEX10/26/1908641424347 LONG, GEORGE09/01/1908135125-0810377 LOWE, FANNIE11/17/1913363916365568 LOWRY, BENJAMIN09/01/1908116582-0810354 MALLORY, JAMES09/01/1908117460-0810364 MALLORY, JAMES10/31/1916653944552500 MARY WAIKING DAY09/01/1908141252-0810482 MASSA, WILLIAM06/07/1909045765820 MONEGAR, GEORGE11/17/1913363916365567 MONEGAR, JOE11/17/1913363916365565 MONEGAR, ROSE11/17/1913363916365568 NA-HAE-KAW09/01/1908130615-0810375 NA-HE-HU-NU-KAW10/29/1908157512-0825552...

Treaty of March 8, 1865

Articles of treaty made and concluded at Washington, D. C., between the United States of America, by their commissioners, Wm. P. Dole, C. W. Thompson, and St. A. D. Balcombe, and the Winnebago tribe of Indians, by their chiefs, Little Hill, Little Decoria, Whirling Thunder, Young Prophet, Good Thunder, and White Breast, on the 8th day of March, 1865. Article I.The Winnebago tribe of Indians hereby cede, sell, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to their present reservation in the Territory of Dakota, at Usher’s Landing, on the Missouri River, the metes and bounds whereof being on file in the Indian Department. Article II.In consideration of the foregoing cession, and the valuable improvements thereon, the United States agree to set apart for the occupation and future home of the Winnebago Indians, forever, all that certain tract or parcel of land ceded to the United States by the Omaha tribe of Indians on the sixth day of March, A. D. 1865, situated in the Territory of Nebraska, and described as follows, viz: Commencing at a point on the Missouri River four miles due south from the north boundary-line of said reservation; thence west ten miles; thence south four miles; thence west to the western boundary-line of the reservation; thence north to the northern boundary-line; thence east to the Missouri River, and thence south along the river to the place of beginning. Article III.In further consideration of the foregoing cession, and in order that the Winnebagos may be as well situated as they were when they were moved from Minnesota, the United States...
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