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Linguistic Groups at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century

The groups of tribes continued to move, and by the beginning of the sixteenth century they were located approximately as indicated on tile last map. The Iroquoian tribes had moved far eastward, and some occupied the country south of the St. Lawrence. The Hurons had settled north of Niagara, and the Eries remained south of the lake that bears their name. The Cherokee had become established far south in the Alleghenies, with Uchean tribes to the west of them. The Siouan peoples had scattered far from their ancient homes in the valley of the Ohio Some had traversed the mountainous sections of Virginia and Carolina and reached the Coast; others moving more slowly, and undoubtedly reluctant to abandon the rich hunting grounds west of the Wabash, had probably arrived on the banks of the Mississippi and the shores of Lake Michigan. The Algonquian tribes had likewise moved farther away from their earlier habitat and some had already pushed southward on the Atlantic coast. Muskhogean tribes occupied the greater part of the southeastern United States, and some of their villages, already old when visited by the Spanish invaders in 1540, -nay have been the sites of much earlier proto-Muskhogean settlements. The villages of the Calusa and Timucua tribes dominated the peninsula of Florida. This was the distribution of the linguistic groups at the beginning of the historic era, when Europeans were soon to enter and traverse the vast, unknown region that lay between the Atlantic coast and the...

Iroquoian and Muskhogean Tribes after arrival East of the Mississippi

The fertile valleys of Tennessee and Kentucky present more convincing evidence of having been occupied by a great number of tribes, at different times, than does any other section of the southeastern United States. Many of the tribes differed in manners and customs, as indicated by the great variety of archeological material recovered front the innumerable sites. During the migratory movements as theoretically expressed on the maps, the present States of Tennessee and Kentucky were crossed and re-crossed by many tribes, representing the historic Siouan, Uchean, Iroquoian, and Muskhogean stocks, while probably at an early time, and certainly at a later day, Algonquian tribes frequented the same region. The archeologist of the future may be able to differentiate the material recovered from the scattered sites, and thereby determine the sequence of the tribal movements. If the theory that the Iroquoian tribes formerly occupied the Ozark region and later crossed to the left bank of the Mississippi is accepted, it is assumed that some traversed the western and central portions of the present State of Tennessee before pushing northward. By so doing they would have displaced the earlier inhabitants of the country, undoubtedly proto-Muskhogean tribes. Many Muskhogean migration legends refer to the coming of the people from the west, and it is possible that the removal of some of the tribes into the trans-Mississippi region was contemporaneous with the movement of the Iroquoian peoples into the same country farther north, nearer the Ohio. Possibly some of the earlier tribes became absorbed by the Muskhogean peoples, while others moved eastward to the mountains or beyond. The Timucua group, preceded by the...

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