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The Toltecs are associated with a single city, about 100 miles north of Mexico City. It is known today by the Totonac word for town, Tula.  However, that was also the probable name of Teotihuacan.  The city probably had another name.  The problem is now, anthropologists are not even sure what ethnic group lived there.  The city was contemporary with the Totonac and Huastec civilizations, but its architecture bears no resemblance to either.  What the architecture of Tula No. 2 does resemble is the Native American city in southern Illinois now called Cahokia.  Tula’s pyramids are earth and rubble veneered with stone and plaster, while Cahokia’s pyramids were all earthen. Scholars long assumed that the Aztec version of history, in regard to the Toltecs, was accurate.  These Aztecs stated that the Toltecs were originally Chichimec barbarians like themselves, who eventually became great artisans and scholars.  The word means “artisans” in Archaic Nahuatl. Toltec civilization did not quite have the sophistication of the Mayas. The final form of its architecture was simpler and more martial in appearance than that of the Mayas. The Toltecs utilized a logoglyphic writing system that probable was incapable of transmitting complete sentences or verb tenses. According to several Mesoamerican legends, Tula was founded around 900 AD by newcomers to its region.  Neighboring provinces tried to drive the newcomers out. In the Nahuatl version, Cē Ācatl Topiltzin (Our Prince One-Reed Feathered Serpent) was born in the city of Tepotzlan, but as a young man migrated to Tula. Here he worked his way up the ranks of the military until becoming the king. Once in power, he...

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