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Peace Attempts with Western Prairie Indians, 1833

What was known as the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was entered into in Mississippi with the Choctaw Indians September 27, 1830;1 pursuant to the terms of the treaty, in 1832 the movement of the Choctaw to their new home between the Canadian and Red rivers was under way but they were in danger from incursions of the Comanche and Pani Picts2 or Wichita, and the Kiowa tribe, who came east as far as the Washita and Blue rivers; these Indians had also evinced a hostile attitude toward white citizens and had attacked and plundered Santa Fe traders, trappers, and other unprotected travelers. A party of twelve traders had left Santa Fe in December, 1832, under Judge Carr of Saint Louis for their homes in Missouri. Their baggage and about ten thousand dollars in specie were packed upon mules. They were descending the Canadian River when, near the present town of Lathrop in the Panhandle of Texas, they were attacked by an overwhelming force of Comanche and Kiowa Indians. Two of the men, one named Pratt, and the other Mitchell, were killed; and after a siege of thirty-six hours the survivors made their escape at night on foot, leaving all their property in possession of the Indians. The party became separated and after incredible hardship and suffering five of them made their way to the Creek settlements on the Arkansas and to Fort Gibson where they found succor. Of the other five only two survived. The money secured by the Indians was the first they had ever seen.3 Colonel Arbuckle on May 6, ordered4 a military force to Red...

Tawehash Indians

Tawehash Indians. Meaning unknown. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest that this group was identical with a Wichita band reported to them as Tiwa. They have been given some of the same synonyms as the Wichita. Tawehash Connections. The Tawehash belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were related closely to the Wichita, Tawakoni, Waco, and Yscani. Tawehash Location. Their earliest known home was on Canadian River north of the headwaters of the Washita. Tawehash Villages. In 1778 Méziéres found two native villages to which he gave the names San Teodoro and San Bernardo. Tawehash History. The Tawehash were encountered in the above situation by La Harpe in 1719. They moved south about the same time as the Tawakoni and other tribes of the group and were found on Red River in 1759, when they defeated a strong Spanish force sent against them. They remained in this same region until in course of time they united with the Wichita and disappeared from history. Their descendants are among the Wichita in Oklahoma. Tawehash Population. Most writers give estimates of the Tawehash along with the Wichita and other related tribes. In 1778 they occupied two villages aggregating 160 lodges and numbered 800 fighting men and...

Tawehash Tribe

Tawehash Indians (Ta-we’-hash, commonly known in early Spanish writings as Taovayas.) A principal tribe of the Wichita confederacy, distinct from the Wichita proper, although the terms are now used as synonymous. By the middle of the 18th century they had settled on upper Red river, where they remained relatively fixed for about a hundred years. Rumors of a tribe called the Teguayos, or Aijaos, who may have been the Tawehash, reached New Mexico from the east early in the 17th century1 . The Toayas found by La Harpe in 1719 on Canadian river with the Touacara (Tawakoni), Ousitas (Wichita), and Ascanis (Hasinai) were evidently the Taweliash, and his report gives us our first definite knowledge of them2 . Their southward migration, due to pressure from the Osage, Chickasaw, and Comanche, was probably contemporary with that of their kinsfolk, the Tawakoni. That their settlement on Red river was relatively recent in 1759 is asserted by Antonio Tremiño, a Spanish captive who was released by the tribe in 17653 . The Spaniards of New Mexico usually designated the Tawehash as the Jumaoos; the French frequently called them and the Wichita Pani piqué, or tattooed Pawnee, while to the Spaniards of San Antonio and the officials in Mexico they were uniformly the Taovayas (in varying forms of orthography) and Wichita4 . After La Harpe’s visit, in 1719, the group of tribes to which the Tawehash belonged became attached, through trade, to the French, while on the other hand they saw little of the Spaniards. But from indifferent strangers the Tawehash and the Spaniards soon became converted into active foes through their differing...

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