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Treaty of September 17, 1851

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras, parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A. D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one. Article I. The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty. having assembled for the purpose of establishing and confirming peaceful relations amongst themselves, do hereby covenant and agree to abstain in future from all hostilities whatever against each other, to maintain good faith and friendship in all their mutual intercourse, and to make an effective and lasting peace. Article II. The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize the right of the United States Government to establish roads, military and other posts, within their respective territories. Article III. In consideration of the rights and privileges acknowledged in the preceding article, the United States bind themselves to protect the aforesaid Indian nations against the commission of all depredations by the people of the said United States, after the ratification of this treaty. Article IV. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby agree and bind themselves to make restitution or satisfaction for any wrongs committed, after the ratification of this treaty, by any band or individual of their...

Treaty of September 23, 1805

Conference Between the United States of America and the Sioux Nation of Indians.1 Whereas, a conference held between the United States of America and the Sioux Nation of Indians, Lieut. Z. M. Pike, of the Army of the United States, and the chiefs and warriors of the said tribe, have agreed to the following articles, which when ratified and approved of by the proper authority, shall be binding on both parties: Article 1. That the Sioux Nation grants unto the United States for the purpose of the establishment of military posts, nine miles square at the mouth of the river St. Croix, also from below the confluence of the Mississippi and St. Peters, up the Mississippi, to include the falls of St. Anthony, extending nine miles on each side of the river. That the Sioux Nation grants to the United States, the full sovereignty and power over said districts forever, without any let or hindrance whatsoever. Article 2. That in consideration of the above grants the United States (shall, prior to taking possession thereof, pay to the Sioux two thousand dollars, or deliver the value therof in such goods and merchandise as they shall choose). Article 3. The United States promise on their part to permit the Sioux to pass, repass, hunt or make other uses of the said districts, as they have formerly done, without any other exception, but those specified in article first. In testimony hereof, we, the undersigned, have hereunto set our hands and seals, at the mouth of the river St. Peters, on the 23rd day of September, one thousand eight hundred and five. Z....

Sioux Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Eastman, Charles Alexander (Ohiyesa, ‘the Winner’). A Santee Dakota physician and author, born in 1858 near Redwood Falls, Minn. His father was a full-blood Sioux named Many Lightnings, and his mother the half-blood daughter of a well-known army officer. His mother dying soon after his birth, he was reared by his paternal grandmother and an uncle, who after the Minnesota massacre in 1862 fled with the boy into Canada. Here he lived the life of a wild Indian until he was 15 years of age, when his father, who in the meantime had accepted Christianity and civilization, sought him out and brought him home to Flandreau, S. Dak., where a few Sioux families had established themselves as farmers and homesteaders. Ohiyesa was placed in the mission school at Santee, Nebr., where he made such progress in 2 years that he was selected for a more advanced course and sent to Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. After 2 years spent there in the preparatory department he went to Knox College, Galesburg, Ill., thence to Kimball Academy and Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. He was graduated from Dartmouth in 1887, and immediately entered the Boston University school of medicine, receiving the degree of M. D. in 1890. Dr Eastman was then appointed Government physician to the Pine Ridge agency, S. Dak., and served there nearly 3 years, through the ghost-dance disturbance and afterward. In 1893 he went St. Paul, Minn., and entered there on the practice of medicine, also serving for 3 years as traveling secretary of the Young Men s Christian Association among the Indians. Afterward he was attorney for the Sioux...

Sioux Indians

Siouan Family, Siouan Tribe, Sioux Tribe. The most populous linguistic family North of Mexico, next to the Algonquian. The name is taken from a ‘term applied to the largest and best known tribal group or confederacy belonging to the family, the Sioux or Dakota, which, in turn, is an abbreviation of Nadowessioux, a French corruption of Nadowe-is-iw, the appellation given them by the Chippewa. It signifies ‘snake,’ ‘adder,’ and, by metaphor, ‘enemy.’ Before changes of domicile took place among them, resulting from contact with whites, the principal body extended from the west bank of the Mississippi northward from the Arkansas nearly to the Rocky Mountains, except for certain sections held by the Pawnee, Arikara, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Blackfeet, Comanche, and Kiowa. The Dakota proper also occupied territory on the east side of the river, from the mouth of the Wisconsin to Mille Lacs, and the Winnebago were about the lake of that name and the head of Green bay. Northward Siouan tribes extended some distance into Canada, in the direction of Lake Winnipeg. A second group of Siouan tribes, embracing the Catawba, Sara or Cheraw, Saponi, Tutelo, and several others, occupied the central part of North Carolina and South Carolina and the Piedmont region of Virginia1 , while the Biloxi dwelt in Mississippi along the Gulf coast, and the Oto on Yazoo river in the same state. According to tradition the Mandan and Hidatsa reached the upper Missouri from the northeast, and, impelled by the Dakota, moved slowly upstream to their present location. Some time after the Hidatsa reached the Missouri internal troubles broke out, and part, now called the Crows,...

Blackfeet Tribe in War

The Blackfeet were a warlike people. How it may have been in the old days, before the coming of the white men, we do not know. Very likely, in early times, they were usually at peace with neighboring tribes, or, if quarrels took place, battles were fought, and men killed, this was only in angry dispute over what each party considered its rights. Their wars were probably not general, nor could they have been very bloody. When, however, horses came into the possession of the Indians, all this must have soon become changed. Hitherto there had really been no incentive to war. From time to time expeditions may have gone out to kill enemies, for glory, or to take revenge for some injury, but war had not yet been made desirable by the hope of plunder, for none of their neighbors any more than themselves had property which was worth capturing and taking away. Primitive arms, dogs, clothing, and dried meat were common to all the tribes, and were their only possessions, and usually each tribe had an abundance of all these. It was not worth any man’s while to make long journeys and to run into danger merely to increase his store of such property, when his present possessions were more than sufficient to meet all his wants. Even if such things had seemed desirable plunder, the amount of it which could be carried away was limited, since for a war party the only means of transporting captured articles from place to place was on men’s backs, nor could men burdened with loads either run or fight. But...

Yesterday and Today

“We then proceeded on for a mile, and anchored off a willow island, which, from the circumstances which had just occurred, we called Badhumored Island.” This is quoted, not for the chronicles of Swiss Family Robinson, but from a much nearer source, the journal of the Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804-6; and it sums up the impression left by the first meeting of the party with the Teton Sioux, one of the three great branches of that numerous tribe more properly known as Dakota. Of all the Indians on the long journey into the wilderness that the United States had just acquired through the Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark found the Sioux the most quarrelsome, the most menacing of future trouble. In this first encounter at the mouth of the stream they called Teton River, the chiefs accepted the gifts and hospitality of the white men, then strove to detain them and demanded further tribute. Intimidation had been their rule with the traders who had hitherto given them their only contact with the white race; and they did not realize that behind this new group lay the power of a young and growing nation that was spreading over the land that had once been the red man’s alone. Arrows were fixed in their bow’s for flight, and swords were drawn; but the incident passed over without an actual conflict, and the boat that was making its way up the almost unknown reaches of the Missouri went on a space to the island thus named in commemoration of the incident. The next morning a better spirit prevailed; and the...

The New Day

So though the tepee still stands beside the house of wood, though incantations are still heard where the sick man lies, we can only be surprised that so much of the old life has vanished that so much of the new has taken its place; that so many steps have already been taken by these sturdy people on their strange way, the “white man’s road.”

The US Peace Policy with the Sioux

So read the treaty of 1868, made at fort Laramie, Dakota, with a dozen or more tribes of Sioux who had been at war continuously for a half dozen years. For between the nine treaties of 1865 and this new agreement warfare had been going on unceasingly, the annihilation of Fetterman’s command near Fort Phil Kearney being one of the outstanding events of this officially peaceful period.

The Western Wilderness

Of the great Siouan family of tribes found along the upper reaches of the Mississippi when the curtain of history lifted, those to whom we give the name of Sioux were by far the most numerous and the most powerful. Dakota, or “allies,” they called themselves; and their own name has been preserved in the two states in which the greater portion of these people now live. But the name by which we call them is a reminder of their age-long feud with the Chippewa or Ojibwa, north and east of them. Through the Canadian-French the Chippewa word has come to us as Nadowessioux, a diminutive of the word meaning “snakes,” or, figuratively, “enemies.” Enemies the two nations were, through all the years of which we have either record or tradition. The Chippewa folk-story tells of finding the Sioux first where the three Great Lakes meet at Sault Ste. Marie. But the pressure of their constant warfare drove the bands westward before the white man penetrated to this far inland country. In the Jesuit Relations for 1640 we have our first authentic account of the Nadowessioux, and at that time they were eighteen days’ journey farther to the west. They were no less brave and no less powerful than the Chippewa, but the latter were nearer they received from the white man enabled them to drive their enemies before them. Farther back the Dakota retreated into the fastnesses where the European penetrated only at great intervals and with most serious difficulty. So it is that at first we get no more than an occasional glimpse of these remote warlike...
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