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Treaty of July 3, 1868

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Bridger, Utah Territory,on the third day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by and between the undersigned commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and head-men of and representing the Shoshonee (eastern band)and Bannack tribes of Indians, they being duly authorized to act in the premises: Article 1. From this day forward peace between the parties to this treaty shall forever continue. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they hereby pledge their honor to maintain it. If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the personor property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs,at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained. If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, on proof made to their agent and notice by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to the laws; and in case they...

Northern Paiute Indians

Northern Paiute. The Northern Paiute were not properly a tribe, the name being used for a dialectic division as indicated above. They covered western Nevada, southeastern Oregon, and a strip of California east of the Sierra Nevada as far south as Owens Lake except for territory occupied by the Washo. According to the students of the area, they were pushed out of Powder River Valley and the upper course of John Day River in the nineteenth century by Shahaptian tribes and the Cayuse.

Bannock Indians

Bannock Indians. In historic times their main center was in southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, between latitude 42° and 45° North and from longitude 113° West eastward to the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon River and even into southern Montana.

Yahuskin Tribe

Yahuskin Indians. A Shoshonean band which prior to 1864 roved and hunted with the Walpapi about the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney Lakes, Oregon, and temporarily in Surprise Valley and Klamath Marsh, where they gathered wokas for food. They came specially into notice in 1864, on Oct. 14 of which year they became party to the treaty of Klamath Lake by which their territory was ceded to the United States and they were placed on Klamath Reservation, established at that time. With the Walpapi and a few Paiute who had joined them, the Yahuskin were assigned lands in the southern part of the reservation, on Sprague river about Yainax, where the have since resided, although through intermarriage with other Indians on the reservation their tribal identity became lost by 1898, since which time they have been officially designated as Paiute. Gatschet, who visited them about 1884, says they were then engaged in agriculture, lived in willow lodges and log houses, and were gradually abandoning their roaming proclivities. The Yahuskin have always been officially enumerated with the Walpapi, the aggregate population varying between 1877 and 1891 from 135 to 166 persons. In 1909 they were reported at...

Lohim Tribe

Lohim Indians. A small Shoshonean band living on Willow Creek, a south affluent of the Columbia, in Southern Oregon, and probably belonging to the Mono-Paviotso group.  They have never made a treaty with the Government and are generally spoken of as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation. In 1870 their number ws reported as 114, but the name has not appeared in recent official reports.  Ross mistook them for Nez...

Tübatulabal Tribe

Tübatulabal Indians (‘pine-nut eaters,’ Merriam). A small tribe which formerly inhabited the valley of Kern river, south California above the falls extending probably to the river’s source, but centering especially about the junction of the main and south forks. With the Bankalachi they constitute one of the four principal coordinate branches of the Shoshonean...

History of San Luis Rey de Francia Mission

(Saint Louis, King of France, commonly contracted to San Luis Rey). A Franciscan mission founded June 13, 1798, in San Diego County, California. It was the last mission established in California south of Santa Barbara, and the last one by Fr. Lasuen, who was aided by Frs. Santiago and Peyri. The native name of the site was Tacayne. Occupying an intermediate position between San Juan Capistrano and San Diego, it seems to have been chosen chiefly because of the great number of docile natives in the neighborhood. On the day of the founding, 54 children were baptized, and the number of baptisms by the end of the year reached 214. Fr. Peyri, the head of the new mission, was most zealous and energetic, the natives were willing to work, and by July 1, 6,000 adobes were made for the new church, which was completed in 1802. Other buildings also were constructed, and neophytes rapidly gathered in, so that by 1810 the number reached 1,519, a more rapid growth than in any other mission, while the death rate was the lowest. The mission also prospered materially, having in 1810, 10,576 large stock, 9,710 small stock, and an average crop for the preceding decade of 5,250 bushels. During the next decade the mission continued to prosper, the population reaching 2,603 in 1820, while the large stock numbered 11,852, the small stock 13,641, and the average crop was 12,470 bushels. In 1816 Fr. Peyri founded the branch establishment, or asistencia, of San Antonio de Pala, about 20 miles up the river. Here a chapel was built, a padre stationed, and within a...

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