Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Pawnee Priests Making a Smoke Offering

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.



Black Hawk’s War – Indian Wars

Black Hawk

We have now to record the events of a war “which brought one of the noblest of Indians to the notice and admiration of the people of the United States. Black Hawk was an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the



House Document 64

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Sac and Fox tribes of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing law of Congress, regulating the payment of the annuities to our



House Document 63

To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled: The undersigned, chiefs, braves, warriors, and hunters, of the Fox tribe of Indians, beg leave respectfully to represent to your honorable body, that, under the existing regulations respecting the payment of our annuities, we have again been deprived of



Treaty of September 28, 1836

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at the treaty ground on the right bank of the Mississippi river in the county of Debuque and Territory of Wisconsin opposite Rock island, on the twenty-eighth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Henry Dodge commissioner on the part of the United States,



Treaty of October 21, 1837

Land Cession 244

Treaty between the United States and the Sac and Fox tribes in which the tribes ceded 1,250,000 acres of land to the United States for $270,000 or 21.6 cents an acre.



Treaty of September 28, 1836 – 2

Articles of a treaty made and entered into at the treaty ground on the right bank of the Mississippi river in the county of Debuque and Territory of Wisconsin opposite Rock island, on the twenty-eighth day of September one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, between Henry Dodge commissioner on the part of the United States,



Treaty of September 21, 1832

Articles of a Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cession, concluded at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, between the United States of America, by their Commissioners, Major General Winfield Scott, of the United States Army, and his Excellency John Reynolds, Governor of the State of Illinois, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, represented,



Treaty of July 15, 1830

Articles of a treaty made and concluded by William Clark Superintendent of Indian Affairs and Willoughby Morgan, Col. of the United States 1st Regt. Infantry, Commissioners on behalf of the United States on the one part, and the undersigned Deputations of the Confederated Tribes of the Sacs and Foxes; the Medawah-Kanton, Wahpacoota, Wahpeton and Sissetong



Treaty of February 18, 1867

Articles of agreement made and concluded this eighteenth day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, between the United States, represented by Lewis V. Bogy, Commissioner of Indian Affairs; William H. Watson, special commissioner; Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian Affairs for Kansas; and Henry W. Martin, United States Indian agent, duly authorized, and the



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