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The Tribes West of the Mississippi – Indian Wars

By treaties concluded by the agents of the United State government at different periods, nearly all of the Indian tribes have been induced to remove west of the Mississippi. Those who remain in the haunts of their fathers are chiefly converts to Christianity, and in a half civilized state. Many of the tribes have dwindled into insignificance, yet the few who remain are proud to maintain their distinctive appellation, and support the independence of their old clan. The most powerful and numerous tribes in the northwest are the Sioux, or Dacotahs, the Blackfeet, Crows, and Pawnees. A few of the celebrated Delaware tribe still remain, and are a source of terror to their numerous enemies. The Blackfeet Indians occupy the whole of the country about the sources of the Missouri, from the mouth of the Yellow Stone to the Rocky Mountains. Their number is between forty and fifty thousand, and their general bearing is warlike and ferocious. Their enemies are numerous, yet they maintain their ascendancy. The Crows are a much smaller tribe than the Blackfeet, with whom they are always at war. They are fearless warriors, and seek their enemies wherever they are to be found. In number they are about six thousand. The following is an account of one of their battles with the Blackfeet Indians. Fight Between the Crow and the Blackfeet Indians In June, 1845, a party of about seven hundred Crow Indians were driven from their own country by the Sioux, to the vicinity of Fort F. A. C., near the Falls of the Missouri. On the 17th they encountered a small party of Blackfeet warriors,...

Black Hawk’s War – Indian Wars

We have now to record the events of a war “which brought one of the noblest of Indians to the notice and admiration of the people of the United States. Black Hawk was an able and patriotic chief. With the intelligence and power to plan a great project, and to execute it, he united the lofty spirit which secures the respect and confidence of a people. He was born about the year 1767, on Rock river, Illinois. At the age of fifteen he took a scalp from the enemy, and was in consequence promoted by his tribe to the rank of a brave. Engaging soon afterwards in an expedition against the Osages, he fought several battles, highly distinguished himself, and brought back a number of trophies. His reputation being thus established, he frequently led war parties against the enemies of his tribe, and was, in almost every case, successful. The influence and experience he thus acquired were fitting him for a contest in which, though unfortunate, he was to acquire a lasting fame. The treaty concluded in 1804, by Governor Harrison, with the Sacs and Foxes, by which these tribes ceded their lands east of the Mississippi, was agreed to by a few chiefs, without the knowledge or consent of the nation. Although this gave rise to much dissatisfaction among the Indians, no outbreak occurred, until the United States government erected Fort Madison upon the Mississippi. An attempt was then made to cut off the garrison, and from that time, the whites looked upon the Indians as enemies, and so treated them whenever opportunity offered. Previous to this, Illinois...

Treaty of October 11, 1842

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the agency of the Sac and Fox Indians in the Territory of Iowa, between the United States of America, by John Chambers their commissioner thereto specially authorized by the President, and the confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians represented by their chiefs, headmen and braves: Article I.The confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes cede to the United States, forever, all the lands west of the Mississippi river, to which they have any claim or title, or in which they have any interest whatever; reserving a right to occupy for the term of three years from the time of signing this treaty, all that part of the land hereby ceded which lies west of a line running due north and south from the painted or red rocks on the White Breast fork of the Des Moines river, which rocks will be found about eight miles, when reduced to a straight line, from the junction of the White Breast with the Des Moines. Article II. In consideration of the cession contained in the preceding article, the United States agree to pay annually to the Sacs and Foxes, an interest of five per centum upon the sum of eight hundred thousand dollars, and to pay their debts mentioned in the schedule annexed to and made part of this treaty, amounting to the sum of two hundred and fifty-eight thousand, five hundred and sixty-six dollars and thirty-four cents; and the United States also agree, That the President will as soon after this treaty is ratified on their part as may be convenient, assign a...

Treaty of August 4, 1824

To perpetuate peace and friendship between the United States and the Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, and to remove all future cause of dissensions which may arise from undefined territorial boundaries, the President of the United States of America, by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and sole Commissioner specially appointed for that purpose, of the one part, and the undersigned Chiefs and Head Men of the Sock and Fox tribes or nations, fully deputized to act for and in behalf of their said nations, of the other part, have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz: Article I. The Sock and Fox tribes or nations of Indians, by their deputations in council assembled, do hereby agree, in consideration of certain sums of money, &c. to be paid to the said Sock and Fox tribes, by the Government of the United States, as hereinafter stipulated, to cede and for ever quit claim, and do, in behalf of their said tribes or nations, hereby cede, relinquish, and forever quit claim, unto the United States, all right, title, interest, and claim, to the lands which the said Sock and Fox tribes have, or claim, within the limits of the state of Missouri, which are situated, lying, and being, between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and a line running from the Missouri, at the entrance of Kansas river, north one hundred miles to the Northwest corner of the state of Missouri, and from thence east to the Mississippi. It being understood, that the small tract of land lying between the rivers Desmoin and the Mississippi, and the section...

Treaty of September 3, 1822

Articles of a Treaty entered into and concluded at Fort Armstrong, by and between Thomas Forsyth, Agent of Indian Affairs, authorized on the part of the United States for that purpose, of the one part, and the Chiefs, Warriors, and Head Men, of the United Sac and Fox Tribes, for themselves and their Tribes, of the other part. Whereas by the ninth article of the Treaty made and entered into between the United States and the Sac and Fox Tribes of Indians, concluded and signed at Saint Louis, in the District of Louisiana, on the third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and four, it is stipulated, in order to put a stop to the abuses and impositions which are practiced upon the said Tribes by the private traders, the United States will, at a convenient time, establish a trading house or factory, where the individuals of the said Tribes can be supplied with goods at a more reasonable rate than they have been accustomed to procure them. Now, We, the said Chiefs, Warriors, and head men of the said Tribes, for and in consideration of the sum of one thousand dollars to us, now paid in merchandise out of the United States’ Factory, by said Thomas Forsyth, on behalf of the United States, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, do exonerate, release, and forever discharge, the United States from the obligation contained in the said ninth article above recited, and the aforesaid ninth article is, from the date hereof, abrogated and of no effect. In witness whereof, the said Thomas Forsyth, and the chiefs, warriors, and head...

Treaty of May 13, 1816

A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at St. Louis between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said states, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and warriors of the Sacs of Rock river and the adjacent country, of the other part. Whereas by the ninth article of the treaty of peace, which was concluded on the twenty-fourth day of December, eighteen hundred and fourteen, between the United States and Great Britain, at Ghent, and which was ratified by the president, with the advice and consent of the senate, on the seventeenth day of February, eighteen hundred and fifteen, it was stipulated that the said parties should severally put an end to all hostilities with the Indian tribes, with whom they might be at war, at the time of the ratification of said treaty; and to place the said tribes inhabiting their respective territories, on the same footing upon which they stood before the war. Provided, they should agree to desist from all hostilities against the said parties, their citizens or subjects respectively, upon the ratification of the said treaty being notified to them, and should so desist accordingly. And whereas the United States being determined to execute every article of the treaty with perfect good faith, and wishing to be particularly exact in the execution of the article above alluded to, relating to the Indian tribes: The president, in consequence thereof, for that purpose, on the eleventh day of March, eighteen hundred and fifteen, appointed the undersigned William Clark,...

Treaty of September 13, 1815

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of that portion of the Sac Nation of Indians now residing on the Missouri river, of the other part. Whereas the undersigned chiefs and warriors, as well as that portion of the nation which they represent, have at all times been desirous of fulfilling their treaty with the United States, with perfect good faith; and for that purpose found themselves compelled, since the commencement of the late war, to separate themselves from the rest of their nation, and remove to the Missouri river, where they have continued to give proofs of their friendship and fidelity; and whereas the United States, justly appreciating the conduct of said Indians, are disposed to do them the most ample justice that is practicable; the said parties have agreed to the following articles: Article 1. The undersigned chiefs and warriors, for themselves and that portion of the Sacs which they represent, do hereby assent to the treaty between the United States of America and the united tribes of Sacs and Foxes, which was concluded at St. Louis, on the third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and four; and they moreover promise to do all in their power to re-establish and enforce the same. Article 2. The said chiefs and warriors, for themselves and those they represent, do further promise to remain distinct and separate from the Sacs of...

Dawes Act

General Allotment Act or Dawes Act An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations (General Allotment Act or Dawes Act), Statutes at Large 24, 388-91,      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in all cases where any tribe or band of Indians has been, or shall hereafter be, located upon any reservation created for their use, either by treaty stipulation or by virtue of an act of Congress or executive order setting apart the same for their use, the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized, whenever in his opinion any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation, or any part thereof, to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living, or who may be born prior to the date of the order of the President directing an allotment of the lands embraced in any reservation, one-sixteenth of a section: Provided, That in case there is not sufficient land in any of said reservations to allot lands to each individual of the classes above named in...

Illinois Indian Land

With the rapid increase of a white population between the Lakes and the Mississippi, which followed the conclusion of hostilities with England and her Indian allies, new difficulties began to arise between the natives and the settlers. Illinois and Wisconsin were inhabited by various tribes of Indians, upon terms of bitter hostility among themselves, but united in their suspicions and apprehensions at the unprecedented inroads of emigrants from the east. The Winnebago, dwelling in Wisconsin; the Pottawatomie, situated around the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; and the Sac, (afterwards mingled with the Foxes, and usually coupled with that tribe,) of Illinois, principally located upon Rock River, were the most considerable of these north-western tribes. By various cessions, the United States acquired, in the early part of the present century, a title to extensive tracts of country, lying east of the Mississippi, and included in the present state of Illinois. The tribes who sold the land were divided in opinion; great numbers of the occupants of the soil were utterly opposed to its alienation, and denied the authority of the chiefs, by whose negotiation the sales or cessions were effected; and upon the parceling out and the sale by the United States government of this public property to private individuals, conflicting claims soon led to serious disturbances. In July, of 1830, a treaty was formed at Prairie du Chien, between United States commissioners and the tribes of the Iowas, Sioux, Omawha, Sacs and Foxes, &c., for the purpose of finally arranging the terms upon which the lands east of the Mississippi should be yielded up. The Sac chief, Keokuk, was...

1759, August 28, Fort Loudoun

Sir Your Dispatches of the 31st of July, I recd. By James Holmes: I acquainted your Excellency by Charles McCuningham of the Little Carpenter being gone to Warr, with thirty Young fellows and Willi_awaw, with him. He was no sooner gone but I found great attentions in the Disposition and Mind of the Indians; for he kept them very quiet. Tho’ I thank God I live here very easy, in the Upper Towns, and I hear no bad Talks, tho I do not know how long it will continue. I have Recd. Intelligence from the Lower Towns, that it is not so with them, and that they have very bad Talks, and bring White People’s Scalps every Day. They give out there (tho without any foundation) that the Little Carpenter is gone to the French Fort, to make a Peace with the French, and that as soon as he comes back, the Warr will Begin. They may say what they please, I do not believe it, and am almost sure of the company, for a little white before he went away he gave me all the Afsurance of Friendship for the English, and desird me not to mind what I was told in his absence that he was going for Fort Afsumption, to endeavour to a French Prisoner, that he might know what the French were about, and to go immediately to your Excellency that you might consult together, what was to be done afterwards. A Little While ago, hearing that the Slave Catcher of Chotee, and severall other Cherokee Indians, had been to the Albama Fort; and being...
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