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Earliest Known Traders on Arkansas River

With the help of contemporary records it is possible to identify some of the early traders at the Mouth of the Verdigris. Even before the Louisiana Purchase, hardy French adventurers ascended the Arkansas in their little boats, hunting, trapping, and trading with the...

Establishment of Fort Gibson in 1824

By Act of Congress of March 2, 1819, Arkansas Territory was established July 4, embracing substantially all of what are now the states of Arkansas and Oklahoma; though the civil government of Arkansas Territory was limited to that section lying east of the Osage line,...

Establishment of Fort Smith in 1817

The white population in Arkansas in 1817 had increased to several thousand, whose protection, as well as that of the Cherokee people living in that territory, from the continued hostilities of the Osage, required the establishment of a military post at the western...

Treaty of November 15, 1824

Articles of a treaty between the United States of America and the Quapaw Nation of Indians. Article I. The Quapaw Nation of Indians cede to the United States of America, in consideration of the promises and stipulations hereinafter made, all claim or title which they...

Treaty of August 24, 1818

A treaty of friendship, cession, and limits, made and entered into, this twenty-fourth day of August, eighteen hundred and eighteen, by, and between, William Clark and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners on the part and behalf of the United States, of the one part, and...

Illinois Burial Customs

The term Illinois Indians as used by some early writers was intended to include the various Algonquian tribes, encountered in the “Illinois country,” in addition to those usually recognized as forming the Illinois confederacy. Thus, in the following...

Treaty of May 13, 1833

Articles of agreement or a treaty between the United States and the Quapaw Indians entered into by John F. Schermerhorn, commissioner of Indian affairs west on the part of the United States and the chiefs and warriors of the Quapaw Indians. Whereas, by the treaty...

Treaty of August 24, 1835

Treaty with the Comanche and Witchetaw Indians and their associated Bands. For the purpose of establishing and perpetuating peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Comanche and Witchetaw nations, and their associated bands or tribes of...

Quapaw Reservation

The Quapaw Indian reservation is situated in the extreme northeast corner of the agency, and is 6.5 miles wide north and south, 14 miles long east and west, and contains 56,685 acres of land. The land is mostly prairie and well watered. Indications of mineral are...

Fort Coffee Quapaws

On the fourth day of September two Indians, a man and his wife, came to Fort Coffee, to seek admission into the school. They were, according to their statement, Quapaws, and belonged to a remnant of a once numerous tribe, residing near the south-west corner of...
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