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Treaty of January 9, 1789 – Six Nations

Articles of a treaty made at Fort Harmar, the ninth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, between Arthur St. Clair, esquire, governor of the territory of the United States of America, north-west of the river Ohio, and commissioner plenipotentiary of the said United States, for removing all causes of controversy, regulating trade, and settling boundaries, between the Indian nations in the northern department and the said United States, of the one part, and the sachems and warriors of the Six Nations, of the other part: Article 1. Whereas the United States, in congress assembled, did, by their commissioners, Oliver Wolcott, Richard Butler, and Arthur Lee, esquires, duly appointed for that purpose, at a treaty held with the said Six Nations, viz: with the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Tuscarora, Cayuga, and Seneka, at Fort Stanwix, on the twenty-second day of October, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four, give peace to the said nations, and receive them into their friendship and protection: And whereas the said nations have now agreed to and with the said Arthur St. Clair, to renew and confirm all the engagements and stipulations entered into at the before mentioned treaty at Fort Stanwix: and whereas it was then and there agreed, between the United States of America and the said Six Nations, that a boundary line should be fixed between the lands of the said Six Nations and the territory of the said United States, which boundary line is as follows, viz: Beginning at the mouth of a creek, about four miles east of Niagara, called Ononwayea, or Johnston’s...

Mohawk Indian Villages and Towns

There are but three villages in the Mohawk territory which can be called prehistoric,— one each for the Turtle, Bear, and Wolf clans. All these show signs of a knowledge of Europeans prior to 1642; and one, at least, of direct but slight contact. Being refugees, and in fear of their enemies, they placed their first villages quite remote from the Mohawk River,— from four to ten miles. As soon as they possessed firearms, and the power secured by these, they built their dwellings along the river. All the early Mohawk towns of the historic period in New York are in Montgomery county, three earlier ones lying north and west. The Mahican boundary line followed the hilltops east of Schoharie creek and near the line of Albany county, and at one time the western Mohawk boundary was at Little Falls. The sites of the towns were often changed, and several names might be given to one, or some small village might have none on record. In a few instances the name followed the town in its removals. The Mohawks, the first and the most easterly situated of the Five Nations, at the time of Father Jogues’ visit in 1642, had three large villages located in the beautiful valley of the Mohawk, on the south bank of the Mohawk River, and west of the Schoharie River. Ossernenon was situated on an eminence a little west of the junction of the Schoharie with the Mohawk, near the present Auriesville. Andagaron was about ten miles west of Ossernenon. Tionnontoguen, the capital, was about twelve miles west of Andagaron, directly east of Flat Creek, near...

Mohawk Indian Chiefs and Leaders

Onasakenrat, Joseph Onasakenrat (‘White Feather’) , Joseph. A Mohawk chief, noted for his translations of religious works into his native language. He was born on his father’s farm, near Oka, Canada, Sept. 4, 1845; at 14 years of age he was sent to Montreal College to be educated for the priesthood, remaining there about 4 years. He was afterward converted to Protestantism and became an evangelical preacher. On June 15, 1877, the Catholic church of Oka was burned, and Chief Joseph was tried for the offense, but was not convicted. He died suddenly, Feb. 8, 1881, at Caughnawaga. Among his translations into the Mohawk dialect are the Gospels (1880) and a volume of hymns. At the time of his death he was engaged in translating the remainder of the Bible, having reached in the work the Epistles to the Hebrews. Oronhyatekha Oronhyatekha (‘It [is a] burning sky’). A noted Mohawk mixed-blood, born on the Six Nations reservation, near Brantford, Ontario, in 1841; died at Augusta, Georgia, March 4, 1907. In his childhood he attended a mission industrial school near his home, and later entered the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, Massachusetts, and Kenyon College at Gambier, Ohio, where he remained two years, fitting himself for Toronto University, which he afterward entered. To cover expenses during his college vacation, he hired some white men, whom he dressed in Indian garb and exhibited with himself in a “Wild West” show. While a student at Toronto, in 1860, the chiefs of the Six Nations deputized Oronhyatekha to deliver an address to the Prince of Wales (King Edward VII) on the occasion of his...

Mohawk Tribe

Mohawk Indians (cognate with the Narraganset Mohowaùuck, ‘they eat (animate) things,’ hence ‘man-eaters’) The most easterly tribe of the Iroquois confederation.  They called themselves Kaniengehaga, ‘people of the place of the flint.’ In the federal council and in other intertribal assemblies the Mohawk sit with the tribal phratry, which is formally called the “Three Elder Brothers” and of which the other members are the Seneca and the Onondaga.  Like the Oneida, the Mohawk have only 3 clans, namely, the Bear, the Wolf, and the Turtle. The tribe is represented in the federal council by 9 chiefs of the rank of roianer, being 3 from every clan. These chiefships were known by specific names, which were conferred with the office. These official titles are Tekarihoken, Haienhwatha, and Satekarihwate, of the first group; Orenrehkowa, Deionhehkon, and Sharenhowanen, of the second group; and Dehennakarine, Rastawenserontha, and Shoskoharowanen, of the third group. The first two groups or clans formed an intratribal phratry, while the last, or Bear clan group, was the other phratry. The people at all times assembled by phratries, and each phratry occupied aside of the council fire opposite that occupied by the other phratry. The second title in the foregoing list has been Anglicized into Hiawatha. From the Jesuit Relation for 1660 it is learned that the Mohawk, during a period of 60 years, had been many times both at the top and the bottom of the ladder of success; that, being insolent and warlike, they had attacked the Abnaki and their congeners at the east, the Conestoga at the south, the Hurons at the west and north, and the...

The Spring Of The Great Spirit, Saratoga, New York

In the Village of Saratoga, N. Y., is a spring that has always been regarded by the ancient Mohawks as being very sacred because of its healing powers. It was called by them, “The Spring of the Great Spirit.” Near it is an inscription which reads, “This sacred spring of the Mohawks was known as the Spring of the Great Spirit and it is now known as The High Rock Spring. The first white man to visit it was Sir William Johnson in 1767. General George Washington, George Clinton and Alexander Hamilton visited Philip Schuyler at this spring in 1788.” Heading west from Saratoga the Mohawks followed the old trail that led to the Warrior Path. This led north from the Mohawk to the head of Sacandaga River and on north. The Mohawks headed south and in a little while they were in the Village of Johnstown. Here they visited the grave and also a monument erected in honor of Sir William Johnson, a friend and brother of the early Mohawks who once lived along the Mohawk River....

Mohawk Monument, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia

Near Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, stands a monument erected in memory of a group of Mohawks who, in 1712 were enlisted by the English and taken to Annapolis Royal to secure the peace of the country. A company of Mohawks had served under Major Livingston at the capture of Annapolis and had done good service on the occasion. The English colony was in danger because of the French inhabitants who were stirring up trouble between the Mic-Mac Indians and the English and were threatening to take over the colony. The Mohawks upon arrival in Annapolis built a fort in the most proper place for defense. The very presence of the Mohawks was sufficient to keep the Nova Scotia French and Mia-Macs quiet. Vetch, the English commander, wrote of these Mohawks, “They are of wonderful use, and better than three times the number of white men.” Again he wrote, ” They are better than four times the number of British troops.” The marker of the Mohawk fort is located near the old Glebe House, now owned and occupied by Mr. Arnold Corp and family. One wonders, after knowing of the numerous occasions that the warriors of the Six Nations aided and protected the English colonies when they were as babies in a strange land, how England could possibly “save Face” when during the years 1923-1924 she turned her head, allowing the Canadian Government to invade the little country called Six Nations Land, seize the Six Nation Council House, break open the safe holding the records of the Six Nations, steal the sacred wampum belts of the people, arrest and jail...

Emily Pauline Johnson, Mohawk Poetess, Six Nation Country

Mary Anderson Longboat, an Indian of the Six Nations Reservation, says the following of this remarkable woman: “We of the Six Nations Reserve, honour our Indian poetess, Emily Pauline Johnson. She is more than just a memory, for she lives today in her books which are read throughout the world. In her lifetime, her recitations were equally famous. We are especially proud that she boasted her nationality, and in her native buckskin costume was accepted, even by royalty. As a poetess, Miss Johnson was not great, not a Tennyson nor a Browning, but as Gilbert Parker writes, “Canadian Literature would have been the poorer without her contribution.” Mr. Bernard McEvoy describes her as “a literary worker of whom Canada may well be proud.” She lived close to nature, worshipping the rippling waters of the Grand River, the woods and its stately trees, seeing beauty in all of her surroundings. Hence we have so many musical, happy poems such as “The Song My Paddle Sings,” “Rainfall,” “Moonset” and in “Shadow River” is reflected the beauties of Muskoka. Her pride in her Indian ancestry brought about her racial poetry, a novelty to Canadian art, for in these she sings the praise and glories of her race, tells of old traditions the injustices and wrongs and begs for an understanding of her people. In later life, Pauline Johnson began to develop prose writings devoting one book entire’s to legends. She treasured these old Indian legends as something really belonging to her people and took it upon herself to rescue them from oblivion. They were never written, but handed down by word of...

Mohawk Indian Research

Mohawk (cognate with the Narraganset Mohowaùuck, ‘they eat (animate) things,’ hence ‘man-eaters’) The most easterly tribe of the Iroquois confederation.  They called themselves Kaniengehaga, ‘people of the place of the flint.’ Archives, Libraries  and Genealogy Societies AccessGenealogy Library – Provides a listing of our on line books, books we own, and books we will be putting on line Genealogy Library – Read books online for Free! Mohawk Indian Biographies Ahyouwaight, Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) (hosted at Indigenous Peoples) Molly Brant (hosted at Answers.com) Bureau of Indian Affairs  A Guide to Tracing your Indian Ancestry(PDF) Tribal Leaders Directory Recognized Indian Entities, 10/2010 Update (PDF) Mohawk Indian Cemeteries Native American (Indian) Cemeteries Indian Castle Cemetery  (hosted at Indian Castle Church) Mohawk Indian Census Indians in the 11th Census (1890) of the United States Native American Census Records Mohawk Indian Church Records Indian Castle Church, Canajoharie NY Federal Recognized Tribes St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, 412 State Route 37, Akwesasne, NY 13655 (bad link at this time) Mohawk Council of Akwesasne, P.O. Box 489, Hogansburg, NY 13655 Mohawk Nation, Council of Chiefs, P.O. Box 366, Rooseveltown, NY 13683-3488 Genealogy Help Pages Proving Your Indian Ancestry Indian Genealogy DNA- Testing for your Native American Ancestry How to Write a Genealogical Query Mohawk Indian History Mohawk Indian Tribe History Mohawk Indian Villages and Towns Mohawk Indian Chiefs and Leaders St. Regis Colony or Band (hosted at AccessGenealogy) Mohawk People (hosted at Wikipedia) The Darkest Day in Mohawk History (hosted at Wampum Chronicles) The Land where the Partridge Drums Mohawk Indian Home Page Links Mohawk Indian Language Mohawk Indian Language (hosted at Native Languages of...
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