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Caddo Ghost Dance – Nanisana

The nanisana1 or Ghost dance is held two or three times during summer or autumn, the first performance in June.2 Enoch Hoag, the chief, is today in charge. Before his death in 1917 Thomas Wister or Mr. Blue (Gen. I, 10White Moon’s father) who was Enoch Hoag’s younger brother, had been in charge, because, long before the land allotment,3 it was Mr. Blue who had put into order the dancing grounds (R. Guhayu’ Gudj’axGundj’anao’can: cu, where, hayu’, up, i.e. up creek, where there is a place to dance),–hoeing up the weeds for a dance place and erecting the circular arbor.4 Because his father owned the dancing ground White Moon says that he and his cousin Clarence Hoag had the right to call a “tribal meeting.”–According to Ingkanish, Mr. Squirrel, who died in 1922, was in charge of the Ghost dance. Nanisana is danced two nights in succession, with daytime events, such as Turkey dance in the morning, and in the afternoon War dance or handgame.5 In the nanisana a dance circle is formed around the pole which has been raised in the centre of the dance ground or floor (Fig. 2). The pole is painted dark blue6) “to represent clouds.” Through the pole from east to west runs an imaginary line, the “road.” The dance and song leader stands on the “road” west of the pole, and facing east. On either side of the leader stand the best singers. There is no drum. The dancers, holding one another by the hand, move singing, in anti-sunwise circuit. At the close of the song the dance and song leader should be...

Sioux Indian Wars

Sioux Indian Wars The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century. The Teton Sioux tribes were comprised of Oglala, Hunkpapa, Brule, Miniconjou, Blackfoot, San Arc, Two Kettle in the nineteenth century. Santee, Lakota, 1854 – 1890 The earliest conflict came in 1854 when a fight broke out at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, when Indian warriors killed 29 U.S. soldiers after their chief was shot in the back, in what became known as the Grattan Massacre. The U.S. exacted revenge the next year by killing approximately 100 Sioux in Nebraska. War of the Mormon Cow (hosted at FReeper Foxhole) Grattan Massacre (hosted at Wikepedia) Native Americans on the Oregon Trail (hosted at Idaho State University) Sioux War 1862 By 1862, the Santee Sioux had given up their traditional homelands, which comprised most of southern Minnesota, in exchange for a narrow reservation on the southern bank of the Minnesota River. As compensation for their lands, the Sioux were to receive cash annuities and supplies that would enable them to live without the resources from their traditional hunting grounds. Because of administrative delays, however, both the cash and food had not arrived by the summer of 1862. Crop failures the previous fall made the late food delivery particularly distressing to the Indians. Encroachment by settlers on reservation land and the unfair practices of many American traders also fueled Sioux suspicions and hatred. Map, Sioux War 1862 Sioux War of 1862 (hosted at Fort Wilki) Minnesota’s Uncivil War (hosted at Minnesota Public...

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