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Biography of Black Hawk

Black Hawk (Ma´katawimeshekā´käa, from ma´katäwi ‘it is black, mishi ‘big,’ kā´käa the name referring to the description of a bird, or sparrow hawk.­ W. J.) A subordinate chief of the Sauk and Fox Indians and leader in the Black Hawk wars of 1832. He was born at the Sauk village at the mouth of Rock River, Illinois, in 1767, and belonged to the Thunder gens of the Sauk tribe. When only 15 years of age he distinguished himself in war; and before he was 17, at the head of a war party of young men, he attacked an Osage camp of 100 persons and came away safely with the scalp of a warrior. The next party that he led out, however, he brought to a deserted village, on account of which all except 5 of his party left him; but with these he kept on and brought away 2 scalps with which to efface his disgrace. At the age, of 19 he led 200 Sauk and Foxes in a desperate engagement with an equal number of Osage, destroying half of his opponents, killing 5 men and a woman with his own hands. In a subsequent raid on the Cherokee his party killed 28, with a loss of but 7; but among the latter was his own father, who was guardian of the tribal medicine, hence Black hawk refrained from war during the 5 years following and endeavored to acquire greater super-­natural power. At the end of that time he went against the Osage, destroyed a camp of 40 lodges, with the exception of 2 women, and himself slew 9 persons. On...

Fox Tribe

Fox Indians (trans. in plural of wagosh, ‘red fox,’ the name of a clan). An Algonquian tribe, so named, according to Fox tradition recorded by Dr. William Jones, because once while some Wagohugi, members of the Fox clan, were hunting, they met the French, who asked who they were; the Indians gave the name of their clan, and ever since the whole tribe has been known by the name of the Fox clan. Their own name for themselves, according to the same authority, is Měshkwa`kihŭg’, ‘red-earth people,’ because of the kind of earth from which they are supposed to have been created. They were known to the Chippewa and other Algonquian tribes as Utŭgamig, ‘people of the other shore’. When they first became known to the whites, the Foxes lived in the vicinity of Lake Winnebago or along Fox river, Wisconsin. Verwyst1 says they were on Wolf river when Allouez visited them in 1670. As the tribe was intimately related to the Sauk, and the two were probably branches of one original stem, it is probable that the early migrations of the former corresponded somewhat closely with those of the latter. The Sauk came to Wisconsin through the lower Michigan peninsula, their traditional home having been north of the lakes, and were comparatively newcomers in Wisconsin when they first became known to the French. One of their important villages was for some time on Fox river. The conclusion of Warren2 that the Foxes early occupied the country along the south shore of Lake Superior and that the incoming Chippewa drove them out, has the general support of Fox tradition....

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