Powhatan Agriculture

Chickahominy children cracking walnuts with stone mortar and pounder

A review of some agricultural practices of the Powhatan shows but a few traces of aboriginal Indian survival by the 1920′s.



Map of the Production of Tobacco, per square mile, 1910

Map of the Production of Tobacco, per square mile, 1910

Map of the Production of Tobacco, per square mile, 1910



Map of the Value of Farm Products, Improved land, 1910

Map of the Value of Farm Products, Improved land, 1910

Map of the Value of Farm Products, Improved land, 1910



Map of the Value of Farm Products, by State, 1910

Map of the Value of Farm Products, by State, 1910

Map of the Value of Farm Products, by State, 1910



Map of the Average Size of Farms, by State, 1910

Average Size of Farms, by State, 1910

Map of the Average Size of Farms, by State, 1910



Extracting Wokas Seeds by the Diachas Process

Extracting wokas seeds by the diachas process

In wokas pods properly roasted as well the interior tissues are in the condition of a mucilaginous paste. The seeds do not separate from this paste as readily as they do from the mucilage in pods of the spokwas grade, and therefore the Indian has invented another method of extracting them. This method is known



Wokas as an Article of Commerce

Illustration of a wokas camp at the close of the season

In the preparation of lolensh and of shiwulinz the broken seed shells (tsi’-hlak) are winnowed, as already described, from the seed kernels. These seed shells or hulls are not always thrown away, but they are often saved for a later curious use. In the manufacture of their finer baskets and trays the Klamaths use for



Stonablaks and Shiwulinz

An opened drying pile of wokas

In the preparation of lowak, the pods in the interior of the drying piles do not dry, but turn into a soft, moist, rotten mass, the seeds themselves, however, retaining their freshness. When the piles are opened the dry pods are thrown in a pile by themselves to be made into lowak, but these moist,



Awal

Wokas pods ready for firing.

When seeds are required to be extracted from freshly gathered pods, either to furnish an immediate food supply, or to secure material for the preparation of shnaps or because the wokas gatherer is nearing the end of his harvest and can not wait for the pods to dry, a process of cooking or steaming the



Lolensh

Wokas in process of grinding on a mealing stone

Fresh wokas seeds, in which the kernels are still moist, are in the condition necessary for manufacture into what is called lolensh (lo-lensh’). This condition exists in spokwas and in the two grades of seeds, nokapk and chiniakuni, derived from cooked pods, or away described below. The dried seeds, lowed and stontablaks, can not be



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