Champlain’s Expedition of 1615 Against the Onondaga

Samuel de Champlain, by E. Ronjat

In the year 1615, there dwelt on the south-eastern shore of Lake Huron, between Lake Simcoe and the Georgian Bay, a nation of Indians who were called in their own language, “Wendats” or “Wyandot,” and by the French ” Huron.” There is no record of their having been visited by the white man prior to the above date. In the same year, the Sieur de Champlain, the Father of French Colonization in America, who had entered the St. Lawrence in 1603 and founded Quebec five years later, ascended the river Ottawa as far as the Huron country-Le Caron, the Franciscan, having preceded him by a few days only. These adventurous pioneers were seeking, in their respective spheres, and by concurrent enterprises, the one to explore the western portions of New France, and the other to establish missions among the North American Indians.



The Authenticity and Accuracy of Champlain’s 1632 Map

1612 Map of New France

In order to account for the many manifest discrepancies between Champlain’s text of 1619 and the map annexed to the edition of 1632, I suggested that the map and the latter edition were not the work of Champlain and never passed under his personal supervision. I gave my reasons for this opinion on pages 5



Wrangell’s Trip Through the Russian River Valley

Admiral Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel

In the summer of 1830, Ferdinand P. Von Wrangell made a long and difficult journey across Siberia accompanied by his wife and infant daughter, to cross the North Pacific to New Archangel (Sitka). This was Von Wrangell’s third visit to Russian-America. In 1836 he returned to Russia by way of Mexico. He tried unsuccessfully to negotiate and enlargement of Russian possessions in California. He visited the tribes of Northern California during this trip.



Montana Settlement, Geology, Exploration, 1728-1862

General View of Mountain Passes

Montana, mountainous or full of mountains1 is a name, as herein used, no less beautiful than significant. From the summit of its loftiest peak – Mount Hayden – may be seen within a day’s ride of each other the sources of the three great arteries of the territory owned by the United States – the



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