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Map of Zwaanendael

Nautical chart of Zwaanendael (“Swanendael”) and Godyn’s Bay in New Netherland. Zwaanendael was a patroonship founded by Samuel Godyn, a director of the Dutch West India Company, in 1629. Godyn made his land claim to the West India Company under jurisdiction of the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions. After a short time, the initial 32 inhabitants were murdered by local Indians and Godyn sold his land back to the West India Company. The West India Company kept the names of the local area, including Godyn’s Bay, which eventually became Delaware Bay. The text in Dutch at left side of the map reads: The nations at the South River are Great Sironese at the Hoerenkil, Sewapois, Remkokes, Small Sironese, Minquaen also named Machaorikyns, Naraticonck, Atsayonck, Mantaes, Rechaweygh, Armewamix, Matikongh, Momakavaongk, Sankikans. These above described nations have friendships with each other. And are mostly one people with one language, with the exception of the Machaoretijns that are named like this because of their language that is Minquaens and is as much similar as with us old Dutch or Wallonian. The life of these people is totally free. Their soothsayers or devil preachers have nothing to say over them, their shamans can’t order them and have no authority to give someone a death penalty. The marriages are not fixed, most have one wife, the chief more than one. And they leave their women easily, and these will go from one to another like a whore, usually women are disowned after having a child and as a result the population remains low. Translation of the tribal names: Sironese – Ciconicine Sewapois – Sewaposees,...

From Hudson to Albany along the Hudson River

Directly opposite Hudson, and connected with it by ferry, is the classically named village of Athens. An old Mahican settlement known as Potick was located a little back from the river. We are now in the midst of the great Ice Industry “Ice Industry,” which reaches from below Staatsburgh to Castleton and Albany, well described by John Burroughs in his article on the Hudson: “No man sows, yet many men reap a harvest from the Hudson. Not the least important is the ice harvest, which is eagerly looked for, and counted upon by hundreds, yes, thousands of laboring men along its course. Ice or no ice sometimes means bread or no bread to scores of families, and it means added or diminished comforts to many more. It is a crop that takes two or three weeks of rugged winter weather to grow, and, if the water is very roily or brackish, even longer. It is seldom worked till it presents seven or eight inches of clear water ice. Men go out from time to time and examine it, as the farmer goes out and examines his grain or grass, to see when it will do to cut. If there comes a deep fall of snow the ice is ‘pricked’ so as to let the water up through and form snow ice. A band of fifteen or twenty men, about a yard apart, each armed with a chisel-bar, and marching in line, puncture the ice at each step, with a single sharp thrust. To and fro they go, leaving a belt behind them that presently becomes saturated with water. But...

The War with the Indians of the West during Washington’s Administration

After the termination of the Revolutionary War, the hardy settlers of the west had still a contest to maintain, which often threatened their extermination. The Indian tribes of the west refused to bury the hatchet when Great Britain withdrew her armies, and they continued their terrible devastation. The vicinity of the Ohio River, especially, was the scene of their operations.

War Between the Colonies and The Western Indians – From 1763 To 1765

A struggle began in 1760, in which the English had to contend with a more powerful Indian enemy than any they had yet encountered. Pontiac, a chief renowned both in America and Europe, as a brave and skillful warrior, and a far-sighted and active ruler, was at the head of all the Indian tribes on the great lakes. Among these were the Ottawas, Miamis, Chippewas, Wyandott, Pottawatomie, Winnebago, Shawanese, Ottagamie, and Mississagas. After the capture of Quebec, in 1760, Major Rodgers was sent into the country of Pontiac to drive the French from it. Apprised of his approach, Pontiac sent ambassadors to inform him that their chief was not far off, and desired him to halt until he could see him “with his own eyes.” When Pontiac met the English officer, he demanded to know the business which had brought him into his country, and how he dared to enter it without his permission. The major told him he had no designs against the Indians, but only wished to expel the French; and at the same time, he delivered him several belts of wampum. Pontiac replied, “I stand in the path you travel until tomorrow morning,” and gave the major a belt. This communication was understood to mean, that the intruder was not to march further without his leave. Next day, the English detachment was plentifully supplied with provisions by the Indians, and Pontiac giving the commander the pipe of peace, assured him that he might pass through his country unmolested, and that he would protect him and his party. As an earnest of his friendship, he sent one...

Native Americans in the Revolutionary War

At the commencement of the American struggle for independence, the Native Americans in the Revolutionary War stood in a peculiar position. Their friendship became a matter of importance to both parties. To secure this, the English took particular care, and had many advantages, of which the colonists were deprived. The expulsion of the French from Canada had given the Indians a high opinion of the valor and power of British forces. They also had the means of supplying the wants of the Indians by presents of articles, which could only be obtained from Europe, and which the American Congress had prohibited the colonists from importing. They had still another and a more important advantage. Since the peace of 1763 nearly all the transactions of the English with the Indians had been conducted by agents who were attached to the home government, and who, of course, secured the Indians as far as possible, to the interest of that government, when the colonies rebelled. Cherokee Indians and the Revolutionary War In the meantime, the Americans were not unmindful of their interests in this quarter. They appointed commissioners to explain the nature of the struggle, and to gain their good will by treaties and presents. Congress, also resolved to distribute goods to the amount of two thousand dollars among them; but the wise resolution was never executed. In almost every period of the war, the Indians took part with the English. South Carolina was one of the first states that felt the force of British influence. All intercourse with the Creeks and Cherokees, the tribes nearest the frontier settlements of that state,...

Red Jacket and the Wyandot Claim to Supremacy

At a great council of the western tribes, assembled near Detroit, prior to the late war, the celebrated Seneca orator, Red Jacket, was present, when the question of the right of the Wyandots to light the council fire, was brought up. This claim he strenuously resisted, and administered a rebuke to this nation in the following terms: “Have the Quatoghies forgotten themselves? Or do they suppose we have forgotten them? Who gave you the right in the west or east, to light the general council fire? You must have fallen asleep, and dreamt that the Six Nations were dead! Who permitted you to escape from the lower country? Had you any heart left to speak a word for yourselves? Remember how you hung on by the bushes. You had not even a place to land on. You have not yet done p___g for fear of the Konoshioni. High claim, indeed, for a tribe who had to run away from the Kadarakwa.1 “As for you, my nephews,” he continued, turning to the Lenapees, or Delawares,” it is fit you should let another light your fire. Before Miqùon came, we had put out your fire and poured water on it; it would not burn. Could you hunt or plant without our leave? Could you sell a foot of land? Did not the voice of the Long House cry, go, and you went? Had you any power at all? Fit act indeed for you to give in to our wandering brothers you, from whom we took the war-club and put on petticoats.”2 FootnotesHon. Albert H. Tracy. ↩For similar language to this, addressed to...

Treaty of July 4, 1866

Articles of agreement between the United States and the chiefs and councilors of the Delaware Indians, on behalf of said tribe, made at the Delaware Agency, Kansas, on the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-six. Whereas Congress has by law made it the duty of the President of the United States to provide by treaty for the removal of the Indian tribes from the State of Kansas; and whereas the Delaware Indians have expressed a wish to remove from their present reservation in said State to the Indian country, located between the States of Kansas and Texas; and whereas the United States have, by treaties negotiated with the Choctaws and Chickasaws, with the Creeks, and with the Seminoles, Indian tribes residing in said Indian country, acquired the right to locate other Indian tribes within the limits of the same; and whereas the Missouri River Railroad Company, a corporation existing in the State of Kansas by the laws thereof, and which company has built a railroad connecting with the Pacific Railroad, from near the mouth of the Kaw River to Leavenworth, in aid of which road the Delawares, by treaty in eighteen hundred and sixty-four, agreed to dispose of their lands, has expressed a desire to purchase the present Delaware Indian reservation in the said State, in a body, at a fair price: It is hereby agreed between Thomas Murphy, superintendent of Indian affairs, John G. Pratt, agent for the Delawares, and William H. Watson, special commissioner, who are duly appointed to act for the United States; and Captain John Connor, Captain Sarcoxie, and Charles Journeycake, chiefs, and...

Treaty of July 2, 1861

Whereas a treaty or agreement was made and concluded at Leavenworth City, Kansas, on the second day of July, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, between the United States of America and the Delaware tribe of Indians, relative to certain lands of that tribe conveyed to the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company, and to bonds executed to the United States by the said company for the payment of the said Indians, which treaty or agreement, with the preliminary and incidental papers necessary to the full understanding of the same, is in the following words, to wit: Whereas, by the treaty of May 30, 1860, between the United States and the Delaware tribe of Indians, it is provided that the surplus lands of said Delawares, not included in their “home reserve,” should be surveyed and appraised under direction of the Secretary of the Interior; and that in order to aid in the construction of a railroad near and through their said “home reserve,” the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company of Kansas, duly organized and incorporated under the laws of said Territory, should have the right to purchase such surplus lands at such appraised value—on condition, however, that after paying for said lands, said company should only receive title to one-half of them on completing and equipping, within a reasonable time, twenty-five (25) miles of said railroad from Leavenworth City westward; and should only receive title to the remaining half of said lands on completing and equipping said road, within a reasonable time, to the western boundary of the “Delaware Reserve;” and that in case said company should fail...

Treaty of May 30, 1860

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at Sarcoxieville, on the Delaware Reservation, this thirtieth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and sixty, by Thomas B. Sykes, as a commissioner on the part of the United States, and following named chiefs of the Delaware tribe of Indians, viz: John Conner, head chief of the whole tribe; Sar-cox-ie, chief of the Turtle band; Ne-con-he-con, chief of the Wolf band; Rock-a-to-wha, chief of the Turkey band, and assistants to the said head chief, chosen and appointed by the people, and James Conner, chosen by the said chief as delegate. Article 1. By the first article of the treaty made and concluded at the city of Washington, on the sixth day of May, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, between George W. Manypenny, commissioner on the part of the United States, and certain delegates of the Delaware tribe of Indians, which treaty was ratified by the Senate of the United States on the eleventh day of July, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, there was reserved, as a permanent home for the said tribe, that part of their country lying east and south of a line beginning at a point on the line between the Delawares and Half-breed Kansas, forty miles in a direct line west of the boundary between the Delawares and Wyandottes; thence north ten miles: thence in a easterly course to a point on the south bank of Big Island Creek, which shall also be on the bank of the Missouri river, where the usual high-water line of said creek intersects the high-water line of said river....
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