Use Of Tobacco Among North American Indians

Pawnee Priests Making a Smoke Offering

Tobacco has been one of the most important gifts from the New World to the Old. In spite of the attempts of various authors to prove its Old World origin there can be no doubt that it was introduced into both Europe and Africa from America. Most species of Nicotiana are native to the New World, and there are only a few species which are undoubtedly extra- American. The custom of smoking is also characteristic of America. It was thoroughly established throughout eastern North and South America at the time of the discovery; and the early explorers, from Columbus on, speak of it as a strange and novel practice which they often find it hard to describe. It played an important part in many religious ceremonies, and the beliefs and observances connected with it are in themselves proof of its antiquity. Hundreds of pipes have been found in the pre-Columbian mounds and village sites of the eastern United States and, although these remains cannot be dated, some of them must be of considerable age. In the southwestern United States the Basket Makers, an ancient people whose remains are found below those of the prehistoric Cliff Dwellers, were smoking pipes at a time which could not have been much later than the beginning of our era.



Narrative of the captivity of Alexander Henry, Esq – Indian Captivities

Narrative of the captivity of Alexander Henry, Esq., who, in the time of Pontiac’s War, fell into the hands of the Huron Indians. Detailing a faithful account of the capture of the Garrison of Michilimacki-Nac, and the massacre of about ninety people. Written by himself.1 When I reached Michilimackinac I found several other traders, who



The Robinson Treaties

In consequence of the discovery of minerals, on the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, the Government of the late Province of Canada, deemed it desirable, to extinguish the Indian title, and in order to that end, in the year 1850, entrusted the duty to the late Honorable William B. Robinson, who discharged his duties



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Treaty Number Four

This treaty, is, so generally called, from having been made at the Qu’Appelle Lakes, in the North-West Territories. The Indians treated with, were a portion of the Cree and Saulteaux Tribes, and under its operations, about 75,000 square miles of territory were surrendered. This treaty, was the first step towards bringing the Indians of the



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – Afternoon Conference

The Indians having assembled presented the Chiefs, whose names appear on the Treaty to the Commissioners as their Chiefs. KAMOOSES–“To-day we are met together here and our minds are open. We want to know the terms of the North-West Angle Treaty.” LIEUT.-GOV. MORRIS–“Do we understand that you want the same terms which were given at



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – Fifth Day’s Conference

September 14. Both nations, Cree and Saulteaux, having assembled, His Honor Lieut.-Governor Morris again addressed them:– “Children of our Great Mother, I am glad to see you again after another day. How have you come to meet us? I hope you have come to us with good thoughts, and hearts ready to meet ours. I



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – First Day’s Conference

At four o’clock the Commissioners entered the marquee erected for the accommodation of themselves, and the Indians, who in a short time arrived, shook hands with the Commissioners, the officers of the guard, and other gentlemen who were in the tent, and took their seats. It having been noticed that Cote, “the Pigeon,” a leading



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – Sixth Day’s Conference

The Cree having come and shaken hands, His Honor Lieut.-Gov. Morris rose and said: “My friends, I have talked much; I would like to hear your voices, I would like to hear what you say.” KA-KU-ISH-MAY, (Loud Voice–a principal chief of the Cree)–“I am very much pleased with that, to listen to my friends, for



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – Hudson Bay Company

THE GAMBLER–“I have understood plainly before what he (the Hudson Bay Company) told me about the Queen. This country that he (H. B. Co.) bought from the Indians let him complete that. It is that which is in the way. I cannot manage to speak upon anything else, when the land was staked off it



The Qu’appelle Treaty, Or Number Four – Fourth Day’s Conference

September 12, 1874. In the morning four Indians, two Cree and two Saulteaux, waited on the Commissioners and asked that they should meet the Indians half way, and off the Company’s reserve, and that the soldiers should remove their camps beside the Indian encampment, that they would meet the Commissioners then and confer with them;



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