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Expeditions of Fowler and James to Santa Fe, 1821

When Pike returned from his western expedition and related his experiences in Santa Fe and other places among the Spaniards, his accounts excited great interest in the east, which resulted in further exploits. In 1812, an expedition was undertaken1 by Robert McKnight, James Baird, Samuel Chambers, Peter Baum, Benjamin Shrive, Alfred Allen, Michael McDonald, William Mines, and Thomas Cook, all citizens of Missouri Territory; they were arrested by the Spaniards, charged with being in Spanish territory without a passport, and thrown into the calabazos of Chihuahua, where they were kept for nine years. In 1821, two of them escaped, and coming down Canadian and Arkansas rivers met Hugh Glenn, owner of a trading house at the mouth of the Verdigris, and told him of the wonders of Santa Fe. Inspired by the accounts of these travelers, Glenn engaged in an enterprise with Major Jacob Fowler and Captain Pryor for an expedition from the Verdigris to Santa Fe.2 The members of the McKnight party who had escaped from the Spaniards, continued their journey to Saint Louis, where they repeated their romantic tale to John McKnight, a brother of Robert McKnight who was still a prisoner with the Spaniards, and to others. As a result of their account, McKnight and General Thomas James organized an expedition to go from Saint Louis to Santa Fe. James’s purpose was to trade with the Indians, and John McKnight went to see his brother and procure his release, if possible. The two expeditions got under way the same summer, and both went by way of the Arkansas as high as the Verdigris, which at that...

Biographical Sketch of Richard H. Crittenden

Crittenden, Richard H. (See Sanders and Downing)—Richard Henry Crittenden of the Deer Clan, whose Cherokee name is Wa-hala or Bold Eagle, was born in Going Snake District April 9, 1877, educated in the Male Seminary. He married January 17, 1897, Nannie, daughter of Jesse and Frances (Wright) Wright, born 1872. They were the parents of: Fannie Alice, born March 8, 1898; Rogert Lee, born January 4, 1900 and Mary Susan Crittenden, born June 8, 1906. Mrs. Nannie Crittenden died September 8, 1913, and he married on October 20, 1917, Hettie, daughter of Simon and Emma Rogers, born January 15, 1898. They are the parents of Harriett Juanita, born October 6, 1918, and Nellie Catherine Crittenden, born January 7, 1921. John Ross, son of Harry and Susie (Wolf) Crittenden, was born in Georgia, June 30, 1839, educated in Going Snake District. Married January 12, 1862, Alice Harlan, born March 12, 1841. He was elected District Judge of Going Snake District, August 5, 1895, and died June 5, 1896. They were the parents of Richard Henry...

Biographical Sketch of George W. Crittenden

Crittenden, George W. (See Sanders and Grant)—George W. Crittenden, born in Going Snake District, March 25, 1875, educated at Male Seminary. Married February 2, 1896, Jessie Beatrice Lamb nee Martin, born at Greenbrier April 20, 1874, educated at Hogans Institute. They are the parents of Ross Hillis, born Feb. 22, 1909; Jennie Alice born March 10, 1911 and Ruth Marie, born Jan. 14, 1916. Besides their own children they have reared Barbara and Christiana Bell, the two orphan daughters of Mr. Crittenden’s brother, John H. George W. Crittenden belongs to the Deer Clan and his Cherokee name is Sequoyah. He is a farmer and a member of the Odd Fellow lodge. Mrs. Crittenden is the daughter of Joseph Lynch Martin who is known throughout the Cherokee Nation as “Greenbrier Joe” and noted for his shrewd philosophical sayings. Mr. Crittenden is the son of Judge John Ross and Alice (Harlin) Crittenden. His Cherokee name is Tickanooly, meaning bean...

Biographical Sketch of Walter S. Crittenden

(See Ghigau, Sanders, Adair and Gosaduisga)-Walter Starr, son of George Washington and Martha Jane (Starr) Crittenden, was born in May, 1868; educated in the Male Seminary. He married Rachel P. Vann, nee Henry, daughter of Archibald and Polly (Sanders) Henry. Her first husband was Edward Bruce Starr, born April 2, 1850, and died April 18, 1882. Mr. and Mrs. Crittenden are members of the Methodist church and are farmers near Claremore,...

Biographical Sketch of Henry Clay Crittenden

The subject of this sketch is the son of Henry Clay Crittenden, generally known as Harry Crittenden, a half-breed Cherokee, who emigrated from Georgia in 1837, and died about 1871. Henry was born in Going Snake district, in April 1857, and attended the neighborhood school at Barren Fork for several years, and later the Prairie Grove School, in Going Snake district. In 1877 he began farming close to the Arkansas line, near Cincinnati, and married Miss Mary Morris, daughter of Gabriel Morris, a Cherokee, in October 1879. By this union they have five children: Charles, William Cicero, Pearl and Thomas Richard. In 1882 Mr. Crittenden was elected clerk of the house and served till 1886, being once re-elected. From 1886 he served as interpreter for various committees of the council for four years. In 1889 he was appointed Census Superintendent for Going Snake district till 1890, when he commenced the practice of law, and continues it till the present. Mr. Crittenden has two farms in Going Snake district, containing 150 acres, most of which he rents out. He also owns a fine residence and orchard. Mr. Crittenden is a quiet, unassuming, gentlemanly man, honorable and reliable in all his transactions, and commands a host of friends wherever he is known. In 1891 Mr. Crittenden was a member of the committee on...

Coal Mine Slaves

CALDWELL CO. (Mary E. O’Malley) [HW: Ky 6] Coal Mine Slaves: In 1836 large numbers of slaves were brought into Caldwell and worked by the owners of the ore mines, which necessitated extra patrols, interfered with local workmen, and so on. The taxpayers complained to the Legislature and an extra tax was allowed to be levied for the benefit of the county. In other books we find that the owners of the slaves who worked in these mines was President Andrew Jackson who brought his slaves from Nashville to the iron and lead mines in Caldwell and Crittenden counties; he is said to have made several trips himself to these...

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