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Report Relating to the Enrollment of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes

Report of Joseph W. Howell, of March 3, 1909, Relating to the Enrollment of Citizens And Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes. Department Of The Interior Washington, D. C. March 3. 1909. The Honorable Secretary Of The Interior. Sir: In compliance with your request I have prepared and now submit a report concerning the subject of the enrollment of the citizens and freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes. In so doing I have given special attention to the claims of various persons who allege that they are entitled to share in the lands and money of said tribes. Recent developments have also made necessary the consideration of the conditions, which have arisen since the closing of the enrollment work on March 4, 1907. The subject of enrollment, including the claims of these persons, has excited renewed interest and attention by reason of numerous suits which have been instituted in the courts, ns well as by the agitation in Congress and elsewhere concerning the alleged rights of said persons. In order to present the subject clearly it is my purpose: (1) to describe the conditions which obtained in the Five Civilized Tribes prior to and at the time the Government of the United States entered upon the work of preparing rolls of said citizens and freedmen: (2) to outline briefly the various acts of Congress and the agreements with the several tribes under which the work was prosecuted; (3) to explain in what respects said laws failed to accomplish the purpose for which they were intended, owing to defects in the taws themselves and. in a measure, to the methods...

Political and Social Conditions which followed Removal to the Indian Territory

Subsequent Effect Of Same Upon Citizenship Matters The removal of a whole nation from one portion of the country to a remote region difficult of access during the period of 20 year which preceded the Civil War and the reestablishment of that nation after such removal, necessarily had a demoralizing effect upon the institutions and governments of the people affected. This result was accentuated by the fact that the work of removal was accomplished by the Government of the United States, not at any one time, not within the period agreed upon in the treaty. but” throughout a long period of years and in scattering installments. All this is true, not of one nation either, but in all material respects of five. Necessarily a long period of peace and quiet, after such an experience in the history of any nation, would be required to restore conditions of law and order. Furthermore, it is patent that during such a period of turmoil might would make right in the distribution of political and property favors, and that the right of the weak and helpless would be ignored. Various rolls were made from time to time by the tribal authorities, but such rolls were defective in a number of respects, as will lie pointed out hereinafter in connection with the act of May 31, 1900 which will be discussed later. With reference to that act I will point out the conditions which I found to exist upon personal examination of the, tribal rolls, as well as those set forth by the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes in its several reports. The...

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