Most of the tribes listed on this page do not have a
connection to a larger tribe. We list them here so you can find some
information on their history. For a complete listing of our 700 plus
tribes visit Indian History page
Moratoc. A tribe
described in 1686 as living 160 miles up Roanoke river, perhaps
near the south Virginia line. a map of that period places
their village on the north side of the river, which then bore
their name. They are said to have been an important tribe which
refused to hold intercourse with the English.
collective tern used to designate the Combahee, Coosa, Edisto,
Etiwaw, Kiawaw, St. Helena, Stone, Wapoo, and Westo Indians,
formerly living between Charleston, SC and Savannah river.
Their territory was the Chicora of Ayllon and other early
Spanish adventurers, and it is probable that some, if not most
of the tribes mentioned, belonged to the Uchean stock.
They early became reduced through the raids of Spanish slavers
and the connivance of the colonists. In Jan. 1715 they
were reported to number 295 inhabitants in 4 villages, but
during the Yamasi war in that year they and other tribes were
expelled or exterminated. See, Siouan
Tribes of the East.
(Iroquois; 'people of the place of crook-necked squashes, or
'people if the place where they wear crosses') An unidentified
people of whom GallinÚe was
informed by the Iroquois as living on Ohio river, above the
falls at Louisville, Ky. On a map of De l'Isle, dated 1722, a
small lake called Lake Oniasont, around which are the words ;les
Oniasontke,' is placed on the south side, apparently. of the "Ouabache,
otherwise called Ohio or Beautiful river." and the outlet of
Lake Oniasont is made to flow into the Ouabache. It may be
inferred that the Iroquois statement as to the location of this
people was substantially correct; that is, that they lived on a
small lake east of Wabash river and having an outlet into that
stream although Ho˝niasontke'ro˝non is an Iroquois
euphemism for the land of departed spirits.
Ahantchuyuk. A division of the
Kalapooian family on and about Pudding river and east tributary
of the Willamette, emptying into it and about 10 miles south of
Oregon City, Oregon
(said to mean 'chilly region'). A body of Chehalis on a river of
the same name emptying into Chehalis river, Washington. they are
under the supervision of the Puyallup school superintendent and
numbered 21 in 1904.
Kwaiailk A body
of Salish on the upper course of Chehalis river, above the
Satsop and on the Cowlitz, Washington. In 1855, according to
Gibbs, they numbered 216, but were becoming amalgamated with the
'at a lonely place n the woods', their Chinook name. Boas)
An Athapascan tribe which formerly lived on the upper course of
Willopah river, western Washington. Gibbs extends their
habitat east into the upper Chehalis, but Boas does not believe
they extended east of the Coast range. They have been
confounded by Gibbs and others with a Chinookan tribe on the
lower course of the river called Willopah. The place where
they generally lived was called Nq!ulā' was. The
Kwalhioqua and Willopah have ceded their land to the United
States (Royce in 18th Rep. B.A. E., pt. 2, 832, 1899). In
1850 two males and several females survived. Hale (Ethnog.
and Philol., 204, 1846) who estimated them at about 100, said
that they built no permanent habitations, but wandered in the
woods, subsisting on game, berries and roots, and were bolder,
hardier and more savage than the river and coast tribes.
Lohim. A small Shoshonean band living on Willow
Creek, a south affluent of the Columbia, in Southern Oregon, and
probably belonging to the Mono-Paviotso group. They have
never made a treaty with the Government and are generally spoken
of as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation. In 1870
their number ws reported as 114, but the name has not appeared
in recent official reports. Ross mistook them for Nez
Lummi. A Salish trive on ad inland from Bellingham
Bay, north west Washington. They are said to have lived
formerly on part of a group of islands east of Vancouver Island,
to which they still occasionally resorted in 1863.
According to Gibbs their language is almost unintelligible to
the Nooksak, their northern neighbors. Boas classes it
with the Songish dialect. The Lummi are now under the
jurisdiction of the Tulalip school superintendent, Washington,
and numbered 412 in 1905. Their former villages were Hutatchl,
Lemaltcha, Statshum, and Tomwhiksen. The Klalakamish, of
orcas Island, were a former band.
Lakmiut. A Kalapooian tribe formerly
residing on a river of the same name, a western tributary of the
Willamette, in Oregon. They are now on Grande Ronde
Reservation, where they were officially stated to number 28 in
1905. They are steadily decreasing. The following
were Lakmiut bands as ascertained by Gatschet in 1877;
Ampalamuyu, Chantkaip, Chepenafa, Mohawk, Tsalakmiut, Tsampiak,
Tsantatawa and Tsantuisha.
Methow. A Salishan tribe of eastern Washington,
formerly living about Methow river and Chelan lake, now chiefly
gathered on the Colville reservation. Their number is not
Mishikhwutmetunne ('people who dwell
on the stream called Mishi'). An Athapascan tribe formerly
occupying villages on upper Coquille River, Oregon. In
1861 they numbered 55 men, 75 women and 85 children (Ind. Aff.
Rep., 162, 1861). In 1884 the survivors were on Siletz
Reservation. Dorsey (Jour. Am. Folk-lore, iii, 232, 1890)
int hat year obtained the following list of their villages
(which he calls gentes) as they formerly existed on Coquille
River form the Kusan country to the head of the stream, although
not necessarily at one period: Chockrelatan, Chuntshataatunne,
duldulthawaiame, Enitunne, Ilsethlthawaiame, Katomemetunne,
Khinukhtunne, Khweshtunne, Kimestunne, Kthukhwestunne,
Kthunataachutunne, Meshtshe, Makhituntunne, Nakhochatunne,
Natarghiliitunne, Natsushltatunne, Nilestunne, Rghoyinestunne,
Sathlrekhtun, Sekhushtuntunne, Sunsunnestunne,
Sushltakhotthatunne, Thlkwantiyatunne, Thluchikhwutmetunne,
Timethltunne, Tkhlunkhastunne, Tsatarghekhetunne, Tthinatlitunne,
Tulwutmetunne, Tuskhustunne and Tustatukhuushi.
(Nē'malnōmax, 'down river') A Chinokan tribe or division
fromerly living on the upper end of Sauvies Island, Multnomah
County, Oregon. In 1806 they were estimated at 800, but by 1835,
according to Parker they were extinct as a tribe. The term
is also used in a broader sense to include all the tribes living
on or near lower Willametter River, Oregon. See
Lewis and Clark, Exped, ii, 472, 1814)
Chetco (from Cheti, 'close to the mouth of the
stream'; own bane. J.O. Dorsey). a group of former Athapascan
villages situated on each side of the mouth of and about 14
miles up Chetco river, Oregon. There were 9 villages,
those at the mouth of the river containing 42 houses, which were
destroyed by the whites in 1853, after which the Chetco were
removed to Siletz Reservation, Tillamook County, Oregon.
In 1854 they numbered 63 men, 96 women and 104 children; total
262. In 1877 only 63 resided on Siletz reservation.
These villagers were closely allied to the Tolowa of California,
from whom they differed but slightly in language and suxtom.
The villages as recorded by Dorsey were Chettanne, Chettannene,
Khuniliikhwut, Nakwutthume, Nukhwuchutun, Setthatun,
Siskhaslitun, Tachukhaslitun and Thlcharghilitun.
Chilula (Tsu-lu'-la, from
Tsula, the Yurok name for the Bald hills.) A small
Athapascan division which occupied the lower (north west)
portion of the valley of Redwood Creek, north California and
Bald hills, dividing it from Klamath valley. They were shut off
from the immediate coast of Yurok, who inhabited villages at the
mouth of Redwood Creek. The name of the Chilula for
themselves is not known; it is probable that like most of the
Indians of the region they had none, other than the word for
"people" above them on Redwood creek was the related
Athapascan group known as Whilkut, or Xoilkut. The Yurok
names of some of their villages are Cherkhu, Ona, Opa, Otshpeth
Kosotshe. A former
village on the Tututni, identified by Dorsey with the Luckkarso
nation of Lewis and Clark, who placed them on the Oregon coast
south of the Kusan territory in 1805, and estimated their
population at 1,200. Fifty years later Kautz said their
village was on Flores Creek, Oregon. Dorsey fixed their habitat
north of Rogue River between Port Orford and Sixes Creek.
Colville. A division of Salish between Kettle falls
and Spokane River, east Washington; said by Gibbs to have been
one of the largest of the Salish tribes. Lewis and Clark
estimated their number at 2,500, in 130 houses, in 1806. There
were 321 under the Coville agency in 1904.
Columbians. Applied by Bancroft (Nat.
Races, i, 150, 1882) to the Indians of north west America
dwelling between lat 42║ and 55║ and stated by him to be
synonymous with the Nootka-Columbians of Scouler and others.
The term Columbians, however, is evidently broader in its scope,
as it includes all the tribes west of the Rockies from the
Skittagetan group, in the north to south boundary of Oregon,
while Scouler's term comprises a group of languages extending
from the mouth of Salomon River to the south of Columbia River,
now known to belong to several linguistic stocks.
Atquanachuke. A tribe or band residing early in the 17th century in south or
central New Jersey. All references to them are indefinite. Smith, who did not
visit them, says they were on the seacoast beyond the mountains northward from
Chesapeake bay, and spoke a language different from that of the
Conestoga, Tocwogh, and Cuscarawaoc. Most of the early authorities put them in
the same general locality, but Shea, evidently misled by the order in which
Smith associates this name with names of east shore tribes, says they lived in
1633 on the east shore of Maryland and were allies of the Conestoga.
Atsina (Blackfoot: ăt-se'-na, said
to mean 'gut people.'ŚGrinnell. Cf. Ań'ninĕna,
under Arapaho). A detached branch of the Arapaho, at one time associated
with the Blackfeet, but now with the Assiniboin under Ft Belknap agency, Mont.,
where in 1904 they numbered 535, steadily decreasing. They called themselves Ań'ninĕna,
said to mean 'white clay people,' but are known to the other Arapaho as Hit˙nena,
'beg-gars,' or 'spongers,' whence the tribal sign, commonly but incorrectly
rendered 'belly people,' or 'big bellies,' the Gros Ventres of the French
Canadians and now their popular name. The Atsina are not prominent in history,
and in most respects are regarded by the Arapaho proper as inferior to them.
They have been constantly confused with the Hidatsa, or Gros Ventres of the
Index of Tribes or Nations