Indian Tribe History
Most of the tribes listed on this page do not have a
connection to a larger tribe. We list them here so you can find some
information on their history. For a complete listing of our 700 plus
tribes visit Indian History page
Lillooet (` wild
onion'). One of the 4 principal Salish tribes in the interior of
British Columbia, situated on Fraser r. around the mouths of
Cayoosh er. and Bridge r., on Seton and Anderson lakes, and
southward from them to Harrison lake. Pop. 978 in 1904. Bands:
Anderson Lake, Bridge River, Cavoosh Creek (2), Douglas, Enias,
Fountain, Kanlax, Lillooet (2), Mission, Niciat, Pemberton
Meadows, and Schloss. It is sometimes divided into the Lower
Lillooet, including the Douglas and Pemberton Meadows bands, and
the Upper Lillooet, including all the rest.
A Salish tribe on
Jervis and Seecheltinlets, Nelson island, and the south part of
Texada island, British Columbia. They speak a distinct dialect
and are thought by Hill-Tout on physical grounds to be related
to the Lillooet. Anciently there were 4
divisions or septs - Kunechin, Tsonai, Tuwanek, and Skaiakos-but
at present all live in one town, called Chatelech, around the
mission founded by Bishop Dnrieu, who converted them to Roman
Catholicism. The Kunechin and Tsonai are said to be of Kwakiutl
lineage. Pop. 236 in 1902, according to the Canadian Department
of Indian Affairs, and 325 according to Hill-Tout. The former
authority gives 244 in 1909.
Siksika. A tribe
of Siksika confederacy. The now live on a reservation in
Aberta, Canada, on upper Bow river and are officially known as
the Running Rabbit and Yellow Horse bands. They were
divided into the following subtribes or bands: Aisikstukiks,
Apikaiyiks, Emitahpahksaiyiks, Motahtosiks, Puhksinahmahyiks,
Saiyiks, Siksinokaks, Tsiniktsistsoyiks. Population 942 in
1902, 795 in 1909.
by the whites form StsÔ'˝ges, the
name of one of their septs). A
Salish tribe about
Victoria, Vancouver Island, and on the west shore of San Juan
Island, who called themselves Lkungen. This tribe gives
its name to a Salish dialect spoken also by the Sanetch and
Sooke of Vancouver Island, by the
Clallam of the south side of the Juan de Fuca Straight, and
by the Samish,
and Lummi of the
coast south of the Fraser delta. Population of the Songish
proper, including Cheerno, Discovery Island. Esquimalt, and
Songish bands, 182 in 1906. Those speaking the Songish
dialect number about 1,000. Their bands are Chikausch,
Chkungen, Kekayaken, Kltlasen, Ksapesem, Kukoak, Kukulek, Lelek,
Sichanetl, Skingenes, Skuingkung and Stsanges.
Tatlitkutchin ('Peel river people'). A
Kutchin tribe, closely allied to the
Tukkuthkutchin, living on the east band of Peel river,
British Columbia, between lat. 66║ and 67║. For a part of
the season they hunt on the mountains, uniting sometimes with
parties of the Tukkuthkutchin. They confine their hunting
to the caribou, as they no longer have moose hunters among them.
In 1866 they numbered 30 hunters and 60 men.
Tukkuthkutchin ('squint-eyed people')
A Kutchin tribe at the head of Porcupine River, occupying the
territory between the headwaters of Porcupine river and Ft.
McPherson, in the northern Yukon Territory, Canada. Their
eyes are frequently small and oblique, hence their name.
Although barbarous they are more intelligent than other tribes.
They are a commercial people, living by barter. Though good
hunters, rarely lacking food, they do not hunt furs, but
exchange their beads, which form the circulating medium for the
peltry of the neighboring tribes. They are fond of
oratorical display, and in their harangues the voice of the
speaker gradually rises, becoming a screech at the climax. They
subsist at all seasons almost exclusively on caribou, which they
hunt on the mountains. Formerly they were numerous, but by
1866 they had become reduced to 15 hunters or 40 men. Dawson
(Rep.Geol. Surv. Can.1888, 206, 1889) gave
the number of inhabitants of Pee river and La Pierres House, the
Tatlitkutchin and Tukkuthkutchin
together, as 337, consisting of 165 makes and 152 females.
Morice estimated their number at 150 in 1906.
('people of Skeena river'). The most important of the three main
divisions of the Chimmesyan linguistic family, and that which
gives it its name. In the strictest sense it designates the
following closely related tribes or divisions living between
Nass and Skeena rivers, north British Columbia: Kilutsai,
Kinagingeeg, Kinuhtoiah, Kishpachlaots, Kitlani, Kitsalthlal,
Kitunto, Kitwilgioks, Kitwilksheba, and Kitzeesh. To these are
sometimes added the Kitzilas and Kitzimgaylum, who live farther
up Skeena river, near the canyon, but speak the same dialect.
The appellation has also been extended to cover all other tribes
speaking this dialect, viz, the Kitkahta, Kitkatla, and Kittizoo,
who live on the islands southward. The divisional names given
are also names of the ancient towns. To these may be added the
following modern towns: New Kitzilas, Metlakatla (New and Old).
Port Essington, and Port Simpson. Population in1908 (including
465 enumerated in Duncan's colony, Alaska, in 1900), 1, )140.
The name for this division has been so often extended
to include other branches of it that solve of the synonyms may
have a similar extension.
('Crow people') A Kutchin tribe on Yukon rive from Deer river to
Ft. Selkik, Yukon Territory, Canada. They number about
1,100 and differ but little from their Kutchin neighbors below
The books presented are for their
historical value only and are not the
opinions of the Webmasters of the site.
of American Indians, 1906
Canadian Indian Tribes