California Indian Tribe
A tribe, evidently Yuman, described by Garcés in 1775-76 (Diary, 444, 450, 1900)
as inhabiting the territory between San Diego, southern California and the mouth
of the Rio Colorado. They were friendly with the Cocopa. From their
habitat and the similarity in their names they would seem to be identical with
the Comeya, but Garcés mentions the latter, under the name Quemayá as if
distinct. On the map of Father Pedro Font (1777), who was a companion of
Father Garcés, and Cuñeil are located in northern Lower California, between lat
31º and 32º. According to Gatschet the name Kunyil or Knyeyil, in
the Comey dialect signifies "all men", "people".
Dakubetede. A group of
Athapascan villages formerly on Applegate creek, Oregon. The inhabitants
spoke a dialect practically identical with that employed by the Taltushtuntede
who lived on Gallice Creek not far from them. They were intermarried with
the Shasta, who, with the Takilman, were their neighbors. With other
insurgent bands they were removed to the Siletz reservation in 1856.
A collective name, probably in part synonymous with Comeya, applied by the
Spaniards to Indians of the Yuman stock who formerly lived in and around San
Diego, in California, whence the term; it included representatives of many tribes
and has no proper ethic significance; never the less it is a firmly established
name and is there accepted to include the tribes formerly living about San Diego
and extending south to about lat 31º 30. a few Degueños still live in the
neighborhood of San Diego, There are about 400 Indians included under this
name attached to the Mission agency of California, but they are now officially
recognized as part of the "Mission Indians." The rancherias formerly occupied by
the Diegueños, so far as known, are; Abascal, Awhut, Cajon, Camajal, Campo,
Capitan Grande, Cenyowpreskel(?), Cojuat, Coquilt, Corral, Cosoy, Cuyamaca,
Ekquall, Focomae, Guieymura, Hasoomale, Hassasei, Hataam, Hawai, Honwee
Vallecito, Icayme, Inomassi, Inyaha, Kwalwhut, Laguna, La unta, Lorenzo, Mactati,
Maramoydos, Mataguay, Matamo, Matironn, Mattawottis, Melejo, Mesa Chiquita, Mesa
Grande, Meti, Nellmole, Nipaguay, Otai, Otat, Pocol, Pickaway, San Felipe, San
José, Lan Luis, Santa Isable, Siquan, Suahpi, Tachlay, Thwine, Tapanque, Toowed,
Valle de las Viejas, Wahti, Xamacha, Xana and Yacum. The Conejos, the
Kiliwi and the Coyotes are mentioned as former Diegueño bands.
A division of the Yuki of northern California, speaking a dialect divergent from
that of the Round valley Indians. They lived on South Eel river above its
confluence with the middle fork of the Eel river, or in adjacent territories,
and on the headwaters of Russian River in upper Potter valley. To the north of
them were the Witukomnom Yuki, to the east the Wintun and on the other sides
were Pomo tries. The Pomo call them Tatu, the whites Redwoods, from
A Shoshonean division on the California coast, named from San Juan Capistrano
mission, at which they were principally gathered, extending north to Alisos
Carek and south to a point between San Onofre and Las flores Creeks. Their
language forms one group with those of the Luiseños, Kawia and Aguas Calientes.
According to Ames (Pep. Missions Indias., 5, 1837) there were only 40
individuals in the neighborhood in 1873; of these most are now dead and the
Kuneste tribe or band formerly living in Cahto and Long valleys, Mendocino
County, California. These were probably the people mentioned by McKee as
occupying the second large valley of Eel River, numbering about 500 in 1851, and
differing in language from the Pomo, a fact which has long been lost sight of.
Powers divides them into Kai Pomo, Kastel Pomo, and Kato Pomo, and gives a
Kulanapan vocabulary. They have recently been found to belong to the
Athapascan stock and closely related to the Wailaki, although they resemble the
Pomo in culture.
The most westerly subdivision of the Ute-Chemehuevi linguistic division of the
Shoshonean family. They occupy an isolated area on both sides of the
Tehachapi mountains, California, but particularly the west side around Piaute
mountains and the valleys of Walker basin in Caliente and Kelso Creeks as far
south as Tehachapi.
A subsidiary tribe of the Shasta, living at the forks of Salmon River, Siskiyou
County, California, extending 7 miles up the south fork and 5 miles up the north
fork. Their language is very divergent from that of the main body of
A Yokuts tribe formerly living in south central California, in the vicinity of
Tule river and southward. Mentioned in 1852 as friendly tribe on Paint
(White) creek, and described as possessing unusual courage and intelligence.
They are entirely extinct.
(Wishosk name) An Athapascan tribe whose principal settlements were along Bear
and Mattole Rivers, California. They resisted the white race more
vigorously than the natives of this region generally did and suffered practical
extermination in return. They were gathered on a reservation near C.
Mendocino for a time and some of them were afterward taken to Hupa Valley
reservation. A few still live in their old territory. They differ
somewhat from their Athapascan neighbors in language and culture; they burn the
dead; the men tattoo a distinctive mark on the forehead, but in other respects
they are similar to the Hupa.
('man") One of the two divisions of the Moquelumnan family in central
California, the other being the Olamentke. With a small exception in the
west the Miwok occupied territory bounded on the north by Cosumnes River, on the
east by the ridge of the Sierra Nevada, on the south by Fresno creek, and on the
west by San Joaquin River. The exception on the west is a narrow strip of
land on the east bank of the San Joaquin, occupied by Yokuts Indians, beginning
at the Tuolumne and extending northward to a point not far from the place where
the San Joaquin bends to the west. The Miwok are said by Powers to be the
largest "nation" in California, and a man of any of their tribes or settlements
may travel form the Cosumnes to the Fresno and make himself understood without
difficulty, so uniform is their language.
general term applied to the Shoshonean tribes of south east California by their
neighbors on the west. The origin and meaning of the name are obscure, its
identity with the Spanish mono 'monkey" and its similarity, at least in
certain dialects, to the Yokuts word for 'fly' (monai, etc.) are probably
only coincidences. For subdivisions see Mono-Paviotso.
Kawia. A Yokuts
tribe formerly living on the edge of the plains oil the north
side of Kaweah river, California, but now extinct. They were
hostile to the American settlers. By agreement of May 13, 1851
(which was not confirmed), a reserve was set aside for this and,
other tribes between Kawea and Chowchilla rivers, California,
which at the same time ceded their unreserved lands. This tribe
is to be distinguished from the Kawia (Coahuila, Cahuillo, etc.)
a Shoshonean tribe in Riverside County, California.
'person'). A name adopted by Powers to designate a division of
the Copehan family. They occupied the area extending from Stony
creek, Colusa County, to Suisun Bay, Solano County, California,
and from Sacramento river to the boundary of the Kulanapan
family on the west, but excluding the so-called Coyote Valley
Indians on the headwaters of Putah creek in the south part of
Lake County, determined by Barrett to be Moquelumnan and not
Copehan. The dialects of this division differ considerably from
those of the Wintun. Powers believed the Patwin were once very
numerous. The manners and customs of the tribes in the interior
and on the mountains differed greatly from those near the shore.
On the plains and in the valleys in building a dwelling they
excavated the soil for about 2 feet, banked up enough earth to
keep out the water, and threw the remainder on the roof in a
dome. In the mountains, where wood was more abundant and rain
more frequent, no roofing of earth was used. In war the Patwin
used bows and arrows and flint-pointed spears; no scalps were
taken, but the victors are said often to have decapitated the
most beautiful maiden they captured. They had a ceremony for
"raising evil spirits" and dances to celebrate a good harvest of
acorns or a successful catch of fish. The dead were usually
buried, though cremation was practiced to some extent by some of
Watok. Mentioned as a
Yokuts (Mariposan) or a
Shoshonean tribe in south central California, probably on or
near Kings river. The Wat-tokes are mentioned in 1857 as high up
on Kings river, and in 1861 as on Fresno Reservation.
of American Indians, 1906