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In Victor’s River of the West page 163 it is noted that in 1834 a trapping party of 200 men of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company went from Bill Williams fork to the Moqui towns whore several trappers plundered the gardens and shot 15 or 20 peaceful Moquis. In Spanish Mexican and American annals the Moquis are found complaining of the Navajos who were almost constantly robbing them and who would drive them away from the water now, so as to use it for their herds, but for fear of the law and soldiers. Prior to 1866
the United States authorities were ignorant both of the condition of the Moquis and the names of their pueblos
The Moquis 1846-1850
The Hopi Pueblos in 1846 came under the control of the United States authorities by the capture of New Mexico in 1846. They were so merged in history and tradition with the New Mexican Pueblos up to 1866 that they are only heard of as Moquis at long intervals.
Governor Charles Bent appointed by General S. W. Kearny, August 1846 in a report to William Medill Commissioner of Indian Affairs dated November 10, 1846 wrote of the Moquis:
The Moquis (Moquis) are neighbors of the Navajos and live in permanent villages cultivate grain and fruits and raise all the varieties of stock. They were formerly a very numerous people the possessors of large flocks and herds, but have bean reduced in numbers and possessions by their more warlike neighbors and enemies the Navajos. The Moques (Moquis) are an intelligent and industrious people.
The Mormons pushed their settlements down toward them after 1846 and tried to convert them to Mormonism. The Moquis received the missionaries accepted their presents and then sent them home. Tuba City, a Mormon settlement is about 70 miles to the northwest of Oraibi. The Mormons and Moquis constantly visit one another and trade together. At one time the Moquis let some of their farming lands on shares to the Mormons or other white people.
In March 1850 Mr. James S. Calhoun made the following report as to the Moqui Pueblos. In this report he says “the Pueblo Indians are all alike entitled to the favorable and early consideration of the government”.
Indian Agency Santa. Fe, New Mexico
March 29 1850.
Herewith I return the section of a map of New Mexico which you enclosed to me on the 28th day of last December.
You will find marked in this (o) the various Indian pueblos located in this territory upon the section of country which the map represents. It may be well to remember that there are 2 Indian pueblos below El Paso Isletta and Socorro and Zuni an Indian pueblo 88.30 miles northwest of Laguna. Of course neither of these 3 pueblos could be marked upon the map. Beyond Zuni west perhaps 150 miles the Moqui country is reached. These Indians live in pueblos cultivate the soil to a limited extent and raise horses, mules, sheep and goats and I am informed manufacture various articles.
I an extremely anxious to visit these Indians but it would be unsafe to do so without a sufficient escort as the Apaches are upon the left and the Navajos on the right in traveling from Zuni to the Moquis.
The Pueblo Indians are all alike entitled to the favorable and early consideration of the government of the United States. My information concerning the Moqui Indians is not of a character to justify me in making suggestions in reference to an agent or agents further than to say without an absolute examination by some one deputed for that purpose information precise and reliable may not be looked for.
J. S. CALHOUN
Visit of Moquis to Santa Fe 1850.-October 6, 1850 a delegation from the 7 Moqui pueblos came to. Santa Fe to visit Mr. Calhoun and of this visit he wrote:
October 6 1850
The 7 Moqui pueblos sent to me, a deputation, who presented themselves, on the 6th day of this month. Their object as announced was to ascertain the purposes and views of the government of the United States toward them. They complained bitterly of the depredations of the Navajos. The deputation consisted of the cacique of all the pueblos and a chief of the largest pueblo accompanied by 2 who were not officials. From what I could learn from the cacique, I came to the conclusion that each of the 7 pueblos was an independent republic having confederated for mutual protection.
One of the popular errors of the day is there are but 5 of these pueblos remaining; another is that 1 of the pueblos speaks a different language from the other 6. I understood the cacique to say the 7 [pueblos] spoke the same language; but the pueblo in which he resided Tanoquibi, spoke also the language of the pueblo of Santo Domingo, hence the error first mentioned. These pueblos may be all visited in 1 day. They are supposed to be located about due west front Santa Fe and from 3 to 4 days travel northwest from Zuñi.
The following was given to me as the names of their 7 pueblos: Oriva, Samoupavi, Inparavi, Mausand, Opquivi, Chemovi and Tanoquibi. I understood further they regarded as a small pueblo Zuñi as compared with Oriva. The other pueblos were very much like Zuñi and Santo Domingo. They supposed Oriva could turn out 1,000 warriors.
I desired and believed it to be important to visit these Indians and would have done so if Colonel Munroe had not in reply to my application for an escort, replied that he could not furnish me with one at that time. They left me apparently highly gratified at the reception and presents given to them.
It will be observed that the Moquis gave Mr. Calhoun the Indian names of their 7 pueblos.