Schools for the Indians

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Schools For The Indians.

Location, capacity, attendance, etc., of non-reservation schools during fiscal year ended June 30, 1901.

Location of school Date of Opening Number of Employeesa Capacity Enrollment Average attendance
Carlisle Pa Nov 1, 1879 85 b 950 1,040 970
Chemawa, Oreg. (Salem) Feb. 25, 1880 43 500 569 502
Chilocco, Okla Jan 15,1884 44 400 508 399
Genoa, Nebr. Feb 20, 1884 30 300 283 248
Albuquerque. N. Mex. Aug. 1884 34 300 336 315
Lawrence, Kan, (Haskell Institute) Sept 1, 1884 57 700 746 633
Grand Junction, Colo. 1886 21 170 229 177
Santa Fe, N. Mex. Oct 29, 1890 29 300 346 316
Fort Mohave, Ariz. Dec. 21, 1890 21 170 170 164
Carson, Nev. Dec. 22, 1890 22 200 250 192
Pierre, S. D. Feb. 13, 1891 13 150 150 114
Phoenix Ariz. Sept. 1891 55 700 743 684
Fort Lewis, Colo. Mar. 1892 38 300 347 301
Fort Shaw Mont Dec 27, 1892 30 300 340 302
Perris Col Jan 9, 1893 18 150 223 204
 Flandreau, S. Dak. Mar. 7, 1893 34 350 383 339
Pipestone Minn. Feb. 1893 16 150 109 101
Mount Pleasant, Mich. Jan. 3, 1893 23 300 291 200
Tomah, Wis. Jan. 19, 1893 22 225 215 190
Wittenberg, Wis.c Aug 24, 1895 12 100 114 103
Greenville, Cal.c Sept. 25, 1895 8 100 78 58
Morris Minn.c Apr 3 1897 18 150 176 152
Chamberlain, S. Dak Mar. , 1898 13 100 118 109
Fort Bidwell, Cal Apr. 4, 1898 7 150 59 44
Rapid City, S. Dak Sept. 1, 1898 11 100 105 100
           Total 704 7,315 7,928 6,917

a. Excluding those receiving less than $100 per annum.                 b. 1,500 with outing pupils.           c. Previously a contract school.

Attendance.

For the purpose of exhibiting the enrollment and average attendance at all schools for the fiscal year 1901, aggregated and compared with the fiscal year 1900, the following table is presented:

Enrollment and average attendance of Indian schools, 1900 and 1901, showing increase in 1901; also number of schools in 1901.

Kind of school Enrollment Average attendance No. of schools, 1901
1900 1901 Increase (+)
or decrease
(-)
1900 1901 Increase (+) or decrease (-)
Government schools:
   Non-reservation, boarding 7,430 7,928 + 498 6,241 6,917 + 676 25
   Reservation, boarding 9,604 10,782 +1,178 8,094 9,316 +1,222 88
   Day 5,090 4,622 - 468 3,525 3,277 + 248 138
      Total 22,124 23,332 +1,208 17,860 19,510 +1,650 251
Contract schools
   Boarding 2,376 2,376  2,098 1     2,098
   Day  30 30 24 2          24
   Boarding specially appropriated for 400 130 2          270 329 2111 218 1
      Total 2,806 130 -2, 676 2,451 2111 2,340 1
Public 246 257 + 11 118 131 + 13 (3)
Mission boarding 1,062 3,531 +2,469 946 3,120 +2,174 47
Mission day 213  272 + 59 193 205 + 12 5
         Aggregate 26,451 27,522 +1,071 21,568 23, 077 +1,509 304

1. Taken up in mission schools.     2. Hampton        3. Nineteen public schools in which pupils are taught, not enumerated here.

The following table gives a summary of schools and attendance extending through a period of a quarter of a century:

Number of Indian schools and average attendance from 1877 to 1900.

Year Boarding schools Day schools Totals
Number Average
attendance
Number Average
attendance
Number Average
attendance
1877 48 102 150 3,598
1878 49 119 168 4,142
1879 52 107 159 4,448
1880 60 109 169 4,651
1881 68 106 174 4,976
1882 71 3,077 76 1,637 147 4,714
1883 80 3,793 88 1,893 168 5,686
1884 87 4,723 98 2,237 185 6,960
1885 114 6,201 86 1,942 200 8,143
1886 115 7,260 99 2,370 214 9,630
1887 117 8,020 110 2,500 227 10,520
1888 126 8,705 107 2,715 233 11,420
1889 136 9,146 103 2,406 239 11,552
1890 140 9,865 106 2,367 246 12,232
1891 146 11,425 110 2,163 256 13,588
1892 149 12,422 126 2,745 275 15,167
1893 156 13,635 119 2,668 275 16,303
1894 157 14,457 115 2,639 272 17,220
1895 157 15,061 125 3,127 282 18,188
1896 156 15,683 140 3,579 296 19,262
1897 145 15,026 143 3,650 288 18,676
1898 148 16,112 149 3,536 297 19,648
1899 149 16,891 147 3,631 296 20,522
1900 153 17,708 154 3,860 307 21,568
1901 161 19,464 143 3,613 304 23,077

1. Some of the figures in this table as printed prior to 18% were taken from reports of the Superintendent of Indian Schools. As revised, they are all taken from the reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Prior to 1882 the figures include the New York schools.

2. Indian children attending public schools are included in the average attendance, but the schools are not included in the number of schools.

In our last report we expressed the opinion of our board that ” separate boarding school facilities for Indian children had very nearly reached the proper limit,” except among the Navaho. Our observation of the work for another year confirms us in this opinion. Our conviction is clear that as rapidly as possible the Indian children should be put into schools with white children and should thus be fitted for that full American citizenship which lies directly before them all, under the operation of the general allotment law. We deprecate the effort, so manifestly prompted in many cases only by selfish local interest on the part of white people, to secure additional Indian schools where they are not needed. We believe that nothing more should be done to perpetuate that separation between Indians and whites, which it is now the aim of the Government as rapidly as possible to do away with. We do not think that industrial training should displace that instruction in the rudiments of knowledge which is required for intelligent citizenship; but we commend all efforts made through school life to emphasize for the Indians the value of self supporting labor and of practical acquaintance with such industrial pursuits as an Indian may hope to follow, not necessarily upon his own reservation, but among the whites and wherever he may live.

Schools For The Navaho.

We beg to renew under this head the recommendations made in our last annual report.

Steps should at once be taken to establish a system of local semi-industrial schools for the Navaho Indians. This is by far the largest body of Indians who are still left without anything approaching adequate provisions for the schooling of their children. Their nomadic life as herders of sheep and cattle renders difficult the problem of introducing among them right standards as to marriage, family life, and the education of their children. But this should be undertaken by the Government at once.

We suggest the feasibility of a system of local schools, largely industrial, where manufactures, with wool spinning as their basis, should be taught. Possibly Fort Defiance might become a center for the more advanced school work, and a system of industrial and elementary schools might be built up as feeders to this school. The plan, if undertaken, should be under the direction of some competent superintendent who knows these Indians, their needs, and their peculiarities. He should be a man of exceptional qualifications and strong character, who by persistent and kindly effort in work of this kind could win the confidence and support of the Navaho. Such a man could bring the children of this tribe under the influence of education. It will take several years to develop these schools, and the man for the work should be given a good salary (larger than the number of pupils at first might seem to warrant), and should be insured permanent tenure and effective support by the Department for several years before large results could be seen.

We trust that some plan for educating the Navaho may be entered upon this year. For this tribe of 20,000 people the Government provides schooling for an average attendance of only about 200 children. Much more should be attempted at once.



MLA Source Citation:

Board Of Indian Commissioners. Thirty-Third Annual Report Of The Board Of Indian Commissioners. Government Printing Office. 1901. AccessGenealogy.com. Web. 21 October 2014. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/schools-for-the-indians.htm - Last updated on Aug 9th, 2013


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