An Account of Sa-Go-Ye-Wat-Ha or Red Jacket
and his People, 1750-1830
To the Hon. Henry G.
Hubbard, of Middletown, Connecticut
Dear Sir: Your name, associated with many pleasant memories in
the past, and in later years with substantial tokens of esteem,
is held in grateful recollection; and the hope that these pages
may serve to interest an occasional leisure hour, has led to
their being inscribed to you, by your friend and relative.
John N. Hubbard
Chapter I. Red
Jacket--Name widely known--Interest connected with his
history--His origin--Development of his genius--Opinion of Capt.
Horatio Jones--Customs of his people--Their councils--Love of
eloquence--Distinguished names--Eloquence an art among
them--Peculiarity of their language--Field opened for his
Chapter II. Glance at the early
history of the Iroquois--Territory they occupied--Location of
the different tribes--Strength of their
Confederacy--Tuscarora--Traditions--Probable course of their
migrations--Seneca-- Story of their origin--Singular romance.
Chapter III. Name Red Jacket, how acquired--Indian name--Name
conferred--Singular superstition--Red Jacket during the war of
the Revolution--Neutrality of the Indians proposed--Services
sought by Great Britain--Sketch of Sir Wm. Johnson--Red Jacket's
position--Taunt of cowardice--Testimony of Little Beard--Charge
made by Brant--Red Jacket's indifference--Anecdote--Early love
of eloquence--Interesting reminiscences.
Chapter IV. Early struggles--Red Jacket's opportunity for
trial--Council at Fort Stanwix--Office of Sachem--His opposition
to the treaty--Excitement produced by his speech--Part taken by
Cornplanter--His influence in deciding the treaty--How it
Chapter V. United States claim to Indian lands--Conflicting
claims between states--Manner of adjustment--Attempt to acquire
by a lease--Attempt defeated--Lands acquired by New York--From
Onondagas, Oneidas, Cayuga--Indian destitution--Indications of
trouble--Design of severing western New York from the rest of
the state--How defeated--Phelps and Gorham purchase.
Chapter VI. Union of the western Indians--Hostile influence of
the British Indian department in Canada--Ambitious project of Thayendanegea or Brant--Visits England, desiring British aid in
the event of war with the United States--Council at Tioga
Point--Indian ceremonies--Visit of Cornplanter and others at the
seat of government--Fresh occasion of trouble.
Chapter VII. Expedition under General Harmar--Its failure--High
expectations of the Indians--Colonel Proctor visits the Indians
at Buffalo creek--Red Jacket's speech--Indian deputation
refused--Interference of the matrons--Council at Painted
Post--Chiefs invited to Philadelphia.
Chapter VIII. Expedition to the Indian country under General St.
Clair--Washington's charge--Approach to Indian villages--Sudden
surprise--Disastrous battle--Indian victory--Retreat of American
force to Fort Jefferson--Boldness of the Indians--Friendly
Indian deputation--Welcome of the governor of Pennsylvania--Red
Jacket's speech in reply--Address of President Washington--Red
Jacket's reply--Cause of Indian hostilities.
Chapter IX. Indian appropriation--Deputation to the west
promised--Instructions-- Silver medal given to Red Jacket by the
president--Military suits-- Washington's address at parting--Thayendanegea's
visit--Council at Au Glaize--Another Indian
council--Delegation--British control--Washington's letter--Army
under General Wayne--Successful campaign--Treaty concluded.
Chapter X. Canandaigua at an early day--Facts in the early
settlement of Bloomfield--Indian council--Its object--Indian
parade--Indian dress--Opening of the council--Speeches--Liberal
offers of the government--Mr. Savary's journal --Conclusion of
treaty--Account of Red Jacket by Thomas Morris.
Chapter XI. Valley of the Genesee--Indian misgivings--Mill
yard--Effort to obtain their land--Council at Big Tree--Coming
of the Wadsworths--Indian villages--Refusal to sell--Discussion
between Red Jacket and Thomas Morris--Breaking up of the
Chapter XII. Interview between Farmer's Brother and Thomas
Morris--Mr. Morris addresses the women--Distributes
presents--Negotiations continued--Treaty concluded with the
women and warriors--Manner of payment--Inquiries about a
bank--Their reservations--White women--Young King's
dissent--Final settlement--Charge of insincerity.
Chapter XIII. Council at Canawangus--Interesting reminiscence of
Red Jacket--Address of Farmer's Brother--Jasper Parish--Horatio
Jones--Red Jacket's visit at Hartford, Conn.
Chapter XIV. Cornplanter in disrepute--Effort to regain his
standing--Red Jacket charged with witchcraft--His
defense--Further notice of Cornplanter--Early
recollections--With the Indians who defeated Gen. Braddock in
1755--With the English in the war of the Revolution--Takes his
father a prisoner--His address--Release of his father--Address
to the governor of Pennsylvania--Visit of President Alden--Close
of his life.
Chapter XV. Change in Red Jacket's views--Causes producing
it--Unfavorable to any change in the habits of his
people--Opposes the introduction of Christianity among
them--Visit of a missionary--Missionary's speech--Red Jacket's
reply--Unpleasant termination of the council.
Chapter XVI. Tecumseh and Indian confederation--Aid given by Elskawata--Doings at the Prophet's town--Great Indian council at
the West--Red Jacket's claim for precedence to be given the
Seneca--His adherence to the United States--Hostilities
encouraged by British agents--Warriors gathered at the Prophet's
town--Visited by General Harrison at the head of his troops--
Hostilities disclaimed--Surprised by a sudden attack--Indians
defeated-- War proclaimed against England--Indians take
sides--Unfavorable commencement--Different successes--Part taken
by Red Jacket.
Chapter XVII. Taking of Fort Erie--Battle of Chippewa--Service
rendered by the Indians--General Porter's account of the
campaign--Red Jacket commended--Withdrawal of Indian
forces--Other successes--Conclusion of peace.
Chapter XVIII. Pre-emptive right to the Indian reservations,
sold to the Ogden Company--Council to obtain an extinguishment
of the Indian title--Red Jacket's reply to Mr. Ogden's
speech--Indians refuse to sell--Another council called--Account
given by Hon. Albert Tracy--Various utterances of the orator on
that occasion--Indians appeal to the governments of the United
States and New York--Noble response of Governor De Witt Clinton
of New York--Final success of the Ogden Company.
Chapter XIX. Witchcraft--Case of Tom. Jemmy--Testimony of Red
Jacket--Red Jacket's philippic--Finding of the court--Remarkable
interview of Dr. Breckenridge with Red Jacket--Further
expression of views.
Chapter XX. Personal characteristics--Interview with General
Lafayette--Visit of a French nobleman--Col. Pickering
reproved--Address on launching a schooner bearing his
name--Anecdote of Red Jacket and Capt. Jones--His humor-- Strong
memory--Its cultivation--Contempt for pretension without merit--
Love of the sublime--Portraits--Acute perception--Refined sense
of propriety--First bridge at Niagara Falls--Loss of his
children--Care for his people.
Chapter XXI. Views at the close of life--Incident--His
lifework--Unfavorable influences --Advance of Christian
party--Conversion of Red Jacket's wife--Leaves her --His
return--Red Jacket deposed--Journey to Washington--His
restoration--Rapid decline--Regards his end as near--Talks with
the people--Endeavors to unite them--Sickness and death.
The "Life and Times of Red Jacket" by Colonel William L. Stone,
has been before the public for many years. The industry and
ability of the author have made it a work of great value, and
his extensive researches have left but little room for anything
new to be said, by one coming after him. Yet the fact need not
be concealed that many, who were intimately acquainted with Red
Jacket, were disappointed when they came to read his biography.
If it had been prepared under the direct influence and
superintendence of Thayendanegea, or Brant, it could not have
reflected more truly the animus of that distinguished character.
Red Jacket in his day was the subject, at different times of
much angry feeling, and jealousy. The author has not taken pains
to embalm it, in these memorials of the great orator of the
Senecas. Much that was the subject of criticism during his life,
admits of a more charitable construction, and the grave should
become the receptacle of all human resentments.
The author acknowledges his indebtedness to the labors
of Col. Stone, and by an honorable arrangement, liberty was
obtained for the use made of them, in the following pages.
Acknowledgments are due also to others, whose names will appear
in the course of this work.
Tracy, Cal., April 12th, 1885
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Red Jacket and his People, 1885
Jacket and his PeopleFree
Red Jacket and his People