A general name applied by the Spaniards to several tribes of semi-civilized Indians in what is now New Mexico. The term pueblo, in Spanish, literally means the people and their towns. They were first visited by Cabeza de Vaca in 1537, who conveyed the first authentic account of their villages to Mexico, which resulted, in 1540, in the expedition of Coronado. As nearly as can be ascertained at the present time, he visited and subdued the Pueblos in the neighborhood of Zuñi, along the Rio Grande, and the Moqui of the province of Tusayan; but only occupied the country two years. Were finally subdued in 1586, and the Spanish retained uninterrupted control, with the exception of the period of the insurrection of 1680, until the cession of the territory to the United States in 1847. At the time of Coronado’s visit they were as advanced as now, raising grain, vegetables, and cotton, and manufacturing fine blankets. Their houses are sometimes built of stone, but generally of adobe; are several stories in height three to five usually each one receding from the one below, leaving a terrace or walk. The general plan is a hollow square, although in some cases they are built in a solid mass, like a pyramid, six or eight stories in height. In each pueblo there are large rooms, sometimes under ground, for religious observances or councils, called in Spanish, estufas. The towns are sometimes built upon the summits of high terraces or mesas, extremely difficult of approach.
The Pueblos constitute several tribes, with different languages; some are now extinct; but those existing are the Zunis; Tolto in Taos, with whom are classed the people of Picuri, the Sandia, and Isleta; the Tigua in San Juan, Santa Clara, Nainbé, San Ildefonso, Pojuaque, and Tesuque; (the Moquis of pueblo of Te’-wa are said to speak this language); the Queres in Cochité, San Domingo, San Filipe, Santa Aña, Zia, Laguna, and Acoma; the Jemez, in the pueblo of the same name. In the 19 pueblos named there are now estimated to be 8,400 people, the most populous being Zuñi, with some 1,500 souls, and the least, Pojuaque, numbering only some 30 or 40 persons. Were recognized as citizens under Mexican rule, but since the admission of New Mexico the matter has been left in doubt. In 1858, Government confirmed to them the old Spanish grants of the land the Pueblos cultivate, averaging about twelve square leagues to each pueblo. They retain their own form of government, each village electing a governor, and a council consisting of three old men. Have been under Catholic influence since the Spanish conquest; but in the division of the tribes among the religious denominations, the Pueblos were first assigned to the Baptists, and afterward to the Presbyterians, who are now actively engaged in establishing schools among them.
List of illustrations
1015 Na-Na-Án-Ye. A al Metor de la Sierra.
Spanish name, Antonio Jose Atencio. Head chief of all the Pueblos. Can read and write Spanish. Age, 70; height, 5.4½.
1016. Tse-Wa-Án-Ye. Tail of the Eagle Fluttering
Spanish name, Antonio al Churleta. Governor of the pueblo of San Juan, and is the bearer of a cane, the badge of his office, which is marked “A. Lincoln, a San Juan, 1863.” Can read and write in the Spanish language. Age, 64; height, 5.6½.
1017. Wa-Só-To-Yá-Min. Small Feathers of the Eagle.
Spanish name, Juan Jesus Leo. Governor of the pueblo of Taos; which position is retained but for one year. Is the bearer of a cane marked “A. Lincoln a Taos.” Age, 45; height, 5.7½.
643. Ambrosia Abeita.
644. Alejandro Padillo
645-6. Groups With Abeita And Padillo.
992. Group Of Antonio José Atencio, Antonia Al Churleta, And Juan Jesus Leo.
15-17. The Herder.
One of the former governors of the pueblo of Taos.
20. Group Of Corridores.
Young men who are selected to run foot-races during the “feasts” or religious holidays.
614-617; 620,626-7. Young Girls And Women Of The Pueblo Of Taos.
19, 613, 625, 619, 621-2. Various Individuals Belonging To The Pueblo Of Taos.
628-642. Views Of The Pueblo Of Taos.