Besides the recognized tribes or towns of major importance and such of their offshoots as can be identified, the literature of this region contains many names of towns or villages which can not be definitely connected with any of those given. In some cases it may be that we have to deal with ancient divisions in process of decline which were never connected with the rest, but in at least nine-tenths of the cases they are nothing more than temporary offshoots of the larger bodies.
Opilłåko (“Big Swamp”) seems to have been one of the most ancient and important of these. It appears as far back as 1733, on the De Crenay map.1 It appears also in the census lists of 1750 and 1760,2 but not in that of 1761. The trader located there in 1797 was Hendrik Dargin.3 Swan spells the name ”Pinclatchas,”4 and Hawkins has the following description:
O-pil-thluc-co; from O-pil-lo-wau, a swamp; and thluc-co, big. It is situated on a creek of that name, which joins Puc-cun-tal-lau-has-see on the left side. It is 20 miles from Coosau River; the land about this village is round, flat hills, thickets of hickory saplings, and on the hillsides and their tops, hickory grub and grapevines. The land bordering on the creek is rich, and here are their fields.5
The town does not appear in the census list of 1832, and seems to have vanished out of the memories of the living Indians. By his classification of Opilłåko, Hawkins clearly indicates that he considered it a branch of one of the other towns. It is probably the Weypulco of the Mitchell map (pl. 6).
Hawkins thus describes another branch village:
Pin-e-hoo-te; from pin-e-wau [pinwa], a turkey, and ehoo-te [huti], house. It is on the right side of a fine little creek, a branch of E-pe-sau-gee. The land is stiff and rich, and lies well; the timber is red oak and hickory, the branches all have reed, and the land on them, above the settlement, is good black oak, sapling, and hickory. This and the neighboring land is fine for settlement; they have here three or four houses only, some peach trees and hogs, and their fields are fenced. The path from New-yau-cau to Cow-e-tuh-tal-lau-has-see passes by these houses.6
Another town of the same name was in Bibb County, Alabama, east of Cahaba River, opposite the mouth of Shuts Creek.7
There is very much less information regarding the other villages, and I will arrange them alphabetically with the few facts we have concerning them appended:
- ACPACTANICHE. A town in the De I’lsle map of 1703, located on the headwaters of Coosa River. The name may be intended for that of the Pakana.
- ALKEHATCHEE or ALKOHATCHI. De Brahm, writing in the eighteenth century, gave this as the name of an Upper Creek town.8 It perhaps refers Łåłogålga on Elk-hatchee Creek.
- ATCHASAPA. Given on the Purcell map (pl. 7) as a town on Tallapoosa River not far below Tulsa. It may be intended for Hatcheechubba, but if so, it is not properly located.
- AUCHEUCAULA. Royce9 gives this as a town in the northwestern part of Coosa County, Alabama. The first part of the name is probably atcina, cedar. It is evidently the Cedar Creek Village of Owen10 and may be the Authinohatche of the Popple map (pl. 4).
- AUHOBA. Swan has this in his list of Creek towns immediately after Autauga.11 It is possible that it was merely a synonym of Autauga.
- BREED CAMP. The census of 1761 mentions this, but states that it was already said to be broken up.12 See, however, note 1 on page 418.
- CAUWAOULAU. Given by Brannon as a Lower Creek village in Russell County, Alabama, “west of Uchee P. O., south of the old Federal road.”13
- CHACHANE. a town which appears in the Spanish enumeration of 1738 placed among the Lower Creek towns, farther downstream than any other except Old Tamali. It is mentioned in some other Spanish documents.14
- CHANAHUNREGE. On the Popple map (pl. 4). Perhaps the Clamahumgey of Taitt (see p. 418).
- CHANANAGI (“Long ridge”). A Creek town which Brannon places “in Bullock County, just south of the Central of Georgia Railroad, near Suspension.”15 Woodward represents the people of this town as being allied with the Tukabahchee when the Creek-American war broke out. There is a modern village of this name east of Montgomery, in Russell County, Alabama.
- CHICHOUKFEE. “An Upper Creek town, in Elmore County, east of Coosa River, and near Wiwoka Creek.”16
- CHINNABY’S FORT. In 1813 a Creek chief named Chinnaby, friendly to the Americans, had a kind of fort at Ten Islands, on the Coosa River, known as Chinnaby’s fort17 . Perhaps it was identical with Oti palin (q. v,).
- CHISCALAGE. On the Popple map (pl. 4).
- CHOLOCCO LITABIXEE. Brannon18 locates this in the Horseshoe Bend of Tallapoosa River, the scene of Jackson’s famous victory. The first word is from Itcu łako, horse.
- CHUAHLA. “An early Indian town, location not positive, just below White Oak Creek, south of the Alabama River.”19
- COFA. On the Popple map (pl. 4); perhaps another form of “Coosa.”
- COHATCHIE. Given by Royce as a town in the southwestern part of Talladega County, Alabama, on the bank of Coosa River. If correctly transcribed the name may mean “Cane River.”20
- CONALIGA. Woodward mentions an Upper Creek town of this name. It is said to have been “in western Russell County, or eastern Macon, somewhere near the present Warrior Stand.”21
- COOCCOHAPOFE. Site of an old town, apparently on Chattahoochee River. It stood on the right bank and the fields were cultivated on the left bank.22
- COTOHAUTUSTENUGGEE. Royce23 gives this as a Lower Creek settlement on the right bank of Upatoie Creek, in Muscogee County, Georgia. The last part is tåstånågi, “warrior,” and the whole is evidently a man’s name.
- COW TOWNS. Finnelson speaks of towns so called.24
- DONNALLY’S TOWN. Milton25 mentions this as a settlement on Flint River, Georgia, in 1793. The trader Panton calls it “Patrick Donnelly’s Town on the Chatehoochie,” and says it was burned by horsemen from Georgia, September 21, 1793, 6 Indians being killed and 11 taken prisoner.26
- EKUN-DUTS-KE. Given in the census enumeration of 1832. 27 Ikan tåtska means “boundary line” and hence this may be identical with “Line Creek Village,” said to have been on the south bank of Line Creek, in Montgomery County, Alabama. This town may have been on a boundary line between two others.28
- EMARHE or HEMANHIE TOWN. This is given in the census of 1832.29 It was probably named for a man (Imahe).
- ETO-HUSSE-WAKKES (Itahasiwaki) (“Old Log”). Young mentions it as a Lower Creek town on the Chattahoochee River, 3 miles above Fort Gaines, Georgia, having 100 inhabitants in 1820.30
- FIFE’S VILLAGE. Given by Royce as an Upper Creek village a few miles east of Talladega, Alabama.31
- FIN’HALUI (“High Log”).32 A Lower Creek settlement, perhaps the Yuchi town called High Log which appears in the census list of 1832.33 There is a swamp of this name in Wayne County, Georgia.
- HABIQUACHE. On the Popple map (pl. 4).
- IKAN ATCHAKA, “Holy Ground, ” a temporary settlement on the south side of Alabama River, occupied by the Creek leaders, Weatherford and Hilis hadjo, during the Creek-American war, until it was destroyed, December 23, 1813. It is said to have contained 200 houses at the time. Brannon locates it in Lowndes County 2½ miles due north of White Hall, just below the mouth of Holy Ground Creek on Old Sprott Plantation.34
- ISTAPOGA (“Where people live”). Gatschet gives this as an Upper Creek settlement, and Brannon says it was “in Talladega County, near the influx of Estaboga Creek into Choccolocco Creek; about 10 miles from the Coosa River.” There is a modern place so called in Talladega County, Alabama.35
- KEHATCHES. On the Popple map (pl. 4).
- KEROFF. Given in H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong., 1st sess., p. 162, 1836, as a Creek settlement, apparently on the upper Coosa.
- LITAFATCHI, LITTEFUTCHI. The name is said by Gatschet to refer to the manufacture of arrows, łi.36 This was an Upper Creek town at the head of Canoe Creek, St. Clair County, Alabama. It was burned by Colonel Dyer October 29, 1813.37 It was probably the same as, or on the same site as, the Olitifar mentioned in the Pardo narratives, although Olitifar was a “destroyed town” when Pardo heard of it.38
- LUSTUHATCHEE. A town above the second cataract of the Tallapoosa River; lustu, perhaps from låsti black, hatchee, river.
- MELTON’S VILLAGE. “An Upper Creek town, in Marshall County, Alabama, on Town Creek, at the site of the present ‘Old Village Ford.’ Meltonsville perpetuates the name.”39
- NINNIPASKULGEE. Woodward40 mentions this. It would appear to have been a Lower Creek town.
- OAKCHINAWA VILLAGE (okchan, “salt”). Given by Owen as an Upper Creek town “In Talladega County, on both sides of Salt Creek, near the point where it flows into Big Shoal Creek.”41 There may have been some connection between this town and the Creek Oktcånålgi or Salt Clan.
- OLD OSONEE TOWN. Given by Royce as a village probably belonging to the Upper Creeks, on Cahawba River, in Shelby County, Alabama.42
- OTI PALIN (“Ten islands”). A town on the west bank of Coosa River, just below the junction of Canoe Creek. Fort Strother was just below.43 See Chinnaby’s Fort.
- OTI TUTCINA (“Oteetoocheenas, Three Islands”). Swan gives this in his list of Creek towns.44 It seems to have been between Coosa and Opilłako or Pakan Talla-hassee, and the name probably referred to three islands in Coosa River.
- PEA CREEK. A settlement mentioned along with Tukabahchee in the census of 1761.45 It may have been an outsettlement of Tukabahchee.
- RABBIT TOWN. Given as an Upper Greek town in the census enumeration of 1832.46 As the rabbit is always a subject for jest among the Creeks it was suggested to me that this may have been nothing more than a nickname.
- SATAPO. In the report by Vandera of Pardo’s expedition into the interior this appears as a settlement, probably Creek, on Tennessee River.47
- SECHARLECHA (“Under a blackjack tree”). A Lower Creek settlement mentioned frequently in early documents, probably a branch of Kasihta.
- ST. TAFFERY’S. Given in the Ga. Col. Docs, as a small Creek town.48
- TALWA HADJO (“Crazy Town”). An Upper Creek town on Cahawba River, far to the northwest of the other Creek towns.49
- TALIPSEHOGY (“Two talewa plants standing together,” the talewa being used in making dyes). This appears in the census enumeration of 1832 and also in School-craft.50
- TALISHATCHIE TOWN. “An Upper Creek town, in Calhoun County, Alabama, east of a branch of Tallasehatchee Creek, 3 miles southwest of Jacksonville.”51
- TALLAPOOSA. Several early maps give a town of this name, and Adair in one place, and only one, refers to a “Tallapoose town” within a day’s journey of Fort Toulouse.52 It is possible that it was an Alabama town, for the name is either Alabama or Choctaw, and the town may have given its name to the river. It seems to mean “pulverized stones,” or “sand.” In some maps this town seems to be placed on the Coosa (see pl. 4).
- TCHUKO ŁAKO (“Big house,” i.e., square ground) . Gatschet has mistakenly entered two towns of this name in one of his lists of Creek towns.53 The proper name of each of these is Tcahki łåko, “Big ford.”
- TOHOWOGLY. Given along with Coweta as a Lower Creek town 8 to 10 miles below the falls of the Chattahoochee.54 Perhaps it is intended for Sawokli.
- TURKEY CREEK. “An Indian town, in Jefferson County, on Turkey Creek, north of Trussville.”55 This was in territory dominated by the Creek Indians and hence was probably settled by people of that nation.
- UNCUAULA. An Upper Creek town in the western part of Coosa County, on Coosa River.56
- WALLHAL. On the Purcell map (pl. 7). The name may be intended for Eufaula, or this may have been a settlement on Wallahatchee Creek, Elmore County, Alabama.
- WEYOLLA. On the Popple map (pl. 4) and some later maps; probably a very much distorted form of the name of some well-known town.