New Mexico Indian Tribes
ßpachu, "enemy," the Zuni name for
the Navaho who were designated "Apaches de Nabaju" by the early Spaniards
in New Mexico. The name has also been applied to some Yuman tribes, the
Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and the Apache Yuma. See
In the Spanish period, the
Comanche raided into and across the territory of New Mexico repeatedly. (See
Corrupted from Ha'-mish or Hae'-mish, the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also spelled Amayes, Ameias,
Amejes, Emeges, Gemes, etc. See
The Kiowa raided into and across
New Mexico in the Spanish and early American period. (See
The Kiowa Apache were an
Athapascan tribe incorporated into and accompanying the Kiowa. (See
The Lipan were the easternmost of the
Apache tribes. (See
Apache and also
A Spanish word meaning "mild."
Gorretas, by Zarate-Salmeron.
Lanos, by Perea (1632-33).
Connections. The Manso
belonged to the Tanoan division of the Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock.
Location. About Mesilla
Valley, in the vicinity of the present Las Cruces, N. Mex.
The mission of Nuestra Se˝ora
de Guadalupe de los Mansos was founded among them but none of the native
names of their villages are known.
History. Shortly before
the appearance of the Spaniards in their country, the Manso lived in
substantial houses like the Pueblo Indians generally but changed these to
dwellings of reeds and wood. They were relocated at a spot near El Paso in
1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco, who established the above-mentioned
mission among them. The remnant of the Manso are now associated in one
town with the Tiwa and Piro.
Population. In 1668, when
the mission of Nuestra Se˝ora de
Guadalupe de los Mansos was dedicated, Vetancourt states that it contained
upward of 1,000 parishioners. Very few of Manso blood remain.
From P'e'-a-ku', the
Keresan name of the pueblo. See Pecos Location
Significance of Piro unknown. See
Piro Pueblos Location
A general name for those Indians
in the Southwest who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in
more fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for "town" or "village" in Spanish.
It is not a tribal or even a stock name, since the Pueblos belonged to four
distinct stocks. Following is the classification of Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge
(1910) except that the Kiowa have since been connected with the Tanoans and a
few minor changes have been introduced. See Pueblo Indian Location
The Shuman lived at various times
in or near the southern and eastern borders of New Mexico. (See
The name Tiwa is from Ti'wan, pl. Tiwesh',
their own name. See Tiwa Pueblo
The Ute were close to the
northern border of New Mexico, extending across it at times and frequently
raiding the tribes of the region and the later white settlements. (See
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual