New Hampshire Indian Tribes
Parts of Grafton County were
occupied by the
Pequawket bands, affiliated
with the Sokoki of the
Abnaki tribe. (See
Gerard (Hodge, 1910) says the
name is "cognate with Abnaki pěnÔkuk,
or penankuk, 'at the bottom of the hill or highland,' "
but Speck says simply "down hill."
Merrimac, from the river of that name.
Nechegansett, name given by Gookin (1792).
Owaragees, Iroquois name (fide Colden (1747).
Connections. The Pennacook
belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being
the Abnaki, with whom they were
frequently classed, and the Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Malecite.
Location. In southern and central New
Hampshire, northeastern Massachusetts, and the southernmost part of Maine.
(See also Maine,
Subdivisions and Villages
Accominta, at or near the site of York, Maine.
at Ipswich, Mass.
Amoskeag, at Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack
Coosuc, a division
along Connecticut River between Upper and Lower Ammonoosuc Rivers,
the principal village apparently near the mouth of the latter.
Nashua, a division along the upper course of Nashua
River, the village being near Leominster, Mass.
Naumkeag, at Salem, Mass.
Newichawanoc, a division on upper Piscataqua River and
Salmon Falls River in Maine and New Hampshire, the principal village
being near Berwick, Maine.
Pennacook, a division on both banks of Merrimack River
above and below Concord, the village of the same name being on the
site of Concord. Pentucket, at Haverhill, Mass.
Piscataqua, on Piscataqua River near Dover.
Souhegan, a division on Souhegan River, Hillsborough
County, with the village of the same name probably near Amherst,
formerly called Souhegan.
Squamscot, on Exeter River near Exeter, Rockingham
Wachuset, a division on the upper Nashua River, Mass.,
the village of the same name being located probably near Princeton.
Wamesit, a division on the south bank of Merrimack River
below the mouth of Concord River, Mass., the village of the same
name being near Lowell.
Weshacum, at Weshacum Ponds, near Sterling, Mass.
Winnecowet, in Rockingham County.
Winnipesaukee, around the lake of the same name.
History. The early history
of the Pennacook was like that of the Abnaki except that they were earlier
affected by the English settlements on Massachusetts Bay. In King Philip's
War (1675-76) the Nashua and Wachuset tribes joined the hostiles, but the
greater part of the Pennacook, under Wannalancet, remained on friendly
terms until the treacherous seizure of about 200 of their number by
Waldron in 1676. They then abandoned their country and the greater part
removed to Canada, where they ultimately joined the Abnaki and other
Indians of St. Francis. The remainder were finally settled at Scaticook,
Rensselaer County, N. Y.
Population. The number of Pennacook is estimated
by Mooney (1928) at 2,000 in 1600 and 1,250 in 1676. The remnant is
included among the 280 St. Francis Indians returned in 1924.
Connection in which they have become noted.
The town of Penacook and Lake Penacook, Merrimack County, are named after
the Pennacook, as well as a branch station of the Concord Post Office, and
their name also appears in Whittier's poem "The Bridal of Pennacook."
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual