Nevada Indian Tribes
This is properly a California
tribe, though it sometimes ranged into Nevada. (See
The significance of the word
"Paiute" is uncertain, though it has been interpreted to mean "water Ute" or
"true Ute." See
Northern Paiute Location
See Southern Paiute
In historic times none of the
Pueblo Indians have occupied any part of Nevada, but remains in the southern
section of the State testify to former occupancy by these Indians. (See
The Western Shoshoni occupied
northeastern Nevada as far as, and including, Reese River Valley. (See
The Ute claimed a small part of
eastern Nevada. (See
Washo. From the native term Washiu, signifying "person."
Tsaisuma, name given them by the northeastern Maidu.
Connections. Until recently the Washo were regarded as constituting a
distinct linguistic stock, but it is now believed that they were related
to some of the tribes of California. J. P. Harrington has announced a
linguistic connection between them and the Chumash, but other students
place them in the Hokan linguistic family.
Lowie gives the following:
Ha'nale'lti, about Woodfords and in Antelope Valley.
Pa'walu, near Minden
We'lmelti, about Reno.
Location. On Truckee River as far down as the Meadows, though their right
to the latter was disputed by the Northern Paiute tribes; Carson River
down to the first large canyon below Carson City; the borders of Lake
Tahoe; and Sierra and other valleys as far as the first range south of
Honey Lake, Calif.
History. There is some evidence that the Washo were once established in
valleys farther east than the location above given and were driven thence
by Northern Paiute tribes. In 1860—62, according to Mooney (1928), the
Northern Paiute conquered them in a contest over the site of Carson and
forbade them thenceforth to own horses. They had little contact with
Whites until very recent years. In later times they lived between Reno and
a point a short distance south of Carson City, where they adopted a
parasitic mode of life, depending almost entirely on the towns and
ranches. In 1865 it was proposed to set aside two reservations for these
Indians in Carson and Washoe Valleys, but white settlers had already
occupied the territory and the plan was abandoned.
Population. Mooney (1928) made an estimate of 1,000 as of 1845. In 1859
they numbered about 900. In 1907, 300 were reported. The census of 1910
reported 819; that of 1930, 668. In 1937, 629 were reported.
Connections in which they have become noted. The name Washo is preserved
in the names of Washoe County, Washoe Lake, Washoe Valley, and Washoe, a
post hamlet, all in Nevada. Another locality called Washoe is in Carbon
River Valley, Nevada Paiute Indian Records, 1897-1901
River Valley, Nevada Paiute Indian Records, 1902-06
River Valley, Nevada Paiute Indian Records, 1907-12
River Valley, Nevada Paiute Indian Records, 1914-20
Nevada Indians Wounded in Action, World War II
Nevada Indian Honored War Dead, World War II
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual