Michigan Indian Tribes
At a very early period, Chippewa
lived about the Sault St. Marie and on the northern shore of Lake Michigan. (See
Since the Sauk are known to have
lived in Michigan at an early period, it is probable that the Foxes did also,
but this is still uncertain. (See
The same probability of an early
residence in Michigan applies to the Kickapoo as to the Foxes and for a similar
This tribe ceded its claim to a
portion of the upper peninsula of Michigan in 1836. (See
The Miami, or a portion of them,
at one time occupied the valley of St. Joseph River and other parts of the
southern Michigan border. (See
Bands of the Neutral Nation
extended, in the seventeenth century, into what is now southeastern Michigan.
Meaning probably "bear foot," another name for the Bear gens in Chippewa. The
Bear gens may have been prominent in this tribe.
Connections. The Noquet
are thought to have been related to the Menominee of the Algonquian
Location. About Big Bay de Noquet and Little Bay de Noquet and extending across the northern
peninsula of Michigan to Lake Superior. (See also
History. In 1659 the Noquet was one of the tribes attached the St. Michel. They were never ever
prominent and were probably absorbed at a very early date by Menominee or
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Noqute
is perpetuated in the two bays above mentioned.
The Ottawa belonged to the
Algonquian linguistic stock and were related most closely with the Chippewa and
Potawatomi. See Ottawa Location.
Meaning "people of the place of
the fire," and hence sometimes known as the Fire Nation.
Atsistarhonon, Huron name.
Caddo name, meaning "watermelon people." Ndaton8atendi,
Undatomdtendi, Huron name.
Peki'neni, Fox name, meaning "grouse people."
Creek name, meaning "watermelon people."
Miami name, meaning "fire makers."
Woraxa, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name.
The Potawatomi belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, being most closely
affiliated with the Chippewa and Ottawa.
The ancient home of this tribe was evidently in the lower peninsula of Michigan.
Subdivisions and Villages
In the course of their later history,
the Potawatomi became separated into several distinct bands but these do
not seem to have corresponded to any old, well-determined classification.
Abercronk, not certainly Potawatomi, in northeastern Porter County, Ind.
Ashkum's Village, on the north side of Eel River, about Denver, Miami
Assiminehkon, probably Potawatomi, In Lee County, Ill.
Aubbeenaubbee's Village, in Aubbeenaubbee Township in Fulton County, Ind.
Checkawkose's Village, on the south side of Tippecanoe River, about
Harrison Township, Kosciusko County, Ind.
Chekase's Village, on the west side of Tippecanoe River between Warsaw and
Monoquet, Kosciusko, Ind.
Chichipe Outipe, near South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind. Chippoy, on Big
Shawnee Creek, in Fountain County, Ind. Comoza's Village, on Tippecanoe
River in Fulton County, Ind. Kinkash's Village, on Tippecanoe River,
Kosciusko County, Ind.
Little Rock Village, on the north bank of Kankakee River about the
boundary of Kankakee and Will Counties, Ill.
Macon, location unknown.
Macousin, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, Berrien County, Mich.
Mangachqua, on Peble River in southern Michigan.
Maquanago, probably Potawatomi, near Waukesha, in southeastern Wisconsin.
Masac's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River in the northeastern
part of Fulton County, Ind.
Matchebenashshewish's Village, on Kalamazoo River probably In Jackson
Maukekose's Village, near the head of Wolf Creek in Marshall County, Ind.
Menominee's Village, on the north side of Twin Lakes near the site of
Plymouth, Marshall County, Ind.
Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan.
Mesheketeno's Village, on Kankakee River, a short distance above the
present Kankakee in northeastern Illinois.
Mesquawbuck's Village, near Oswego, Kosciusko County, Ind.
Mickkesawbee, at the site of the present Coldwater, Mich.
Milwaukee, with Foxes and Mascouten, at or near the present Milwaukee,
Wis. Minemaung's Village, near Grantpark, Kankakee County, Ill.
Mote's Village, just north of Tippecanoe River near Atwood, Kosciusko
Muskwawasepeotan, near Cedarville, Allen Count , In
Natowasepe, on St. Joseph River about the present Mendon, St. Joseph
Nayonsay's Village, probably Potawatomi, in the northeastern part of
Kendall County, Ill.
Pierrish's Village, on the north bank of Eel River, just above Laketon,
Pokagon, in Berrien County, near the west bank of St. Joseph River just
north of the Indiana line.
Prairie Ronde, about the boundary of Cass and Van Buren Counties, Mich.
Rock Village in northeastern Illinois. Ind.
Rum's Village, about 4 miles south of South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind.
Saint Joseph, a mission on St. Joseph River near the south end of Lake
Saint Michael, a mission in southern Wisconsin.
Sawmehnaug, on Fox River, Ill.
Seginsavin's Village, on Rouge River near Detroit, Mich.
Shaytee's Village, probably Potawatomi on Fox River, Ill.
Shobonier's Village, near the present Shabbona, De Kalb County, Ill.
Soldier's Village, in northern Illinois.
Tassinong, probably Potawatomi, in Porter County, Ind.
Toisa's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River, nearly opposite
Bloomingsburg, Fulton County, Ind.
Tonguish's Village, near Rouge River in the southern part of Oakland
County, or the northern part of Wayne County, Mich. Mich.
Topenebee's Village, on St. Joseph River opposite Niles, Berrien County,
Waisuskuck's Village, in northeastern, Ill
Wanatah, in La Porte County, Ind., a short distance east of the present
Wanatah. Wimego's Village, on the north bank of Indian Creek, in the
northern part of Case County, Ind.
Winamac's Village, near the present Winamac, Pulaski County, Ind.
Wonongoseak, probably Potawatomi, between the northern and southern
branches of Elkhart River, apparently in Noble County, Ind.
(1928) estimate for the Potawatomi, as of the year 1650, is 4,000.
Estimates made between 1765 and 1843 vary from 1,200 to 3,400,but it would
seem that they must have averaged 2,000 to 2,500. In 1908, 2,522
Potawatomi were reported in the United States, distributed as follows:
Citizen Potawatomi in Oklahoma, 1,768; Prairie band in Kansas, 676; and
Potawatomi of Huron, in Calhoun County, Mich., 78. A few besides these
were scattered through their ancient territory and at various other
points. Those in Canada are all in the Province of Ontario and number
about 220, of whom 176 are living with Chippewa and Ottawa on Walpole
Island and the remainder, no longer officially reported, are divided
between Caradoc and Riviére aux
Sables, where they reside by permission of the Chippewa and Munsee. The
United States Census of 1910 returned 2,440, of whom 866 were living in
Oklahoma, 619 in Kansas, 461 in Michigan, and 245 in Wisconsin, while the
remainder were scattered in 11 other States. The United States and
Canadian Indian Office Reports of 1923-24 give 2,227 in Oklahoma, 803 in
Kansas, and 170 on Walpole Island, Ontario, but those in Michigan are not
separately entered. The United States Census of 1930 returned 1,854, of
whom 654 were in Kansas, 636 in Oklahoma, 425 in Wisconsin, and 89 in
Michigan. In 1937 there were 142 in Michigan, 311 in Wisconsin, 1,013 in
Kansas, and 2,667 in Oklahoma: total 4,133.
Connection in which they
have become noted. In the form Pottawatomie the name of this tribe is
used as a designation of counties in Kansas and Oklahoma and a post
township of Coffey County, Kans., and in the form Pottawattamie as the
designation of a county in Iowa.
At some time shortly before
European contact the Sauk lived about Saginaw Bay and the present name of the
bay is derived from them. They were probably driven beyond Lake Michigan by the
Ottawa allied with the Neutral Nation. (See
After the disruption of their
nation by the Iroquois these people lived for limited periods at several
different points in the territory now included in the State of Michigan. They
were temporarily at Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other places. (See
Notes About the Book:
Source: The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton, 1953, Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bulletin 145, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
Online Publication: The manuscript was scanned and then ocr'd. Minimal editing
has been done, and readers can and should expect some errors in the textual