Kosotshe. A former village of the Tututni, identified by Dorsey with the Luckkarso nation of Lewis and Clark, who placed them on the Oregon coast south of the Kusan territory in 1805, and estimated their population at 1,200. Fifty years later Kautz said their village was on Flores Creek, Oregon. Dorsey fixed their habitat north of Rogue River between Port Orford and Sixes Creek.1
The Shalalahs, of whom we know nothing except their numbers, which are computed at 1,200 souls.
The Luckasos2 , of about the same number; and
The Hannakalals, whom we estimate at 600 souls.3
Lukkarso, 1,200 in 1820, Coast of the Pacific, South of Columbia River, beyond the Shallalah.4
In connexion with the subject of Indian treaties, I will here remark, that it is peculiarly unfortunate that so much delay occurs in getting the decision of the President and Senate upon the treaties negotiated with the Oregon Indians. It is exceedingly difficult—nay, impossible— to convey to them intelligibly the causes of delay on my part in fulfilling the promise made. The month of June last was fixed upon to pay the first annuity to the Port Orford Indians; but in this particular no precise time was fixed with the other tribes and bands with whom I negotiated treaties.
It is a matter of earnest solicitation with me, that the apprehended difficulties at Port Orford, alluded to in my letter of the 6th instant, may be averted by the timely arrival of Mr. Culver, who may be able to pacify the Indians until the annuities they so anxiously expect shall arrive. And you may be assured that no time will be lost in forwarding the goods after the news of the ratification of the treaties is received, accompanied with instructions as to the mode of procuring the articles.
Owing to the great length of time that must always necessarily intervene between the making and ratification of Indian treaties in Oregon, I take the liberty to suggest the propriety of permitting the superintendent to cause a small payment to be made to the Indians at the time and place of concluding any treaty, and the payment to be considered the first in conformity to its conditions. I am confident that this would be more satisfactory to the Indians than to receive the same amount as a present, and then be liable to meet with disappointment in the time, as understood by them, that they were to receive their first payment. Whether, to carry out this suggestion, it would require an act of Congress, or if it would come within the powers now given to the President, as provided in the 17th section of the act of Congress of 30th June, 1834, I am undetermined, and would be happy to have your decision in regard to it.5
The two treaties made with the Port Orford Indians seem to have ceded the area between the Rogue River and the Coquille River. Dart stated that the Coquille Indians, who had murdered T’Vault’s party, lived north of the Coquille River and were not included in the treaties made at Port Orford. The Indians had had very little intercourse with the whites, and had very little knowledge of the value of goods or money, but it was believed that they would carry out the provisions of the treaty in every particular. About five hundred Indians were included in these treaties. Dart stated that it was important that these treaties should be made because the region would be rapidly settled due to the location near the gold mines, the agricultural advantages, the cedar forests, and the good harbors.6
On the 20th, the pack-train from Colonel Buchanan’s command arrived at Port Orford, but did not leave before the 24th. I availed myself of the opportunity to accompany the escort with this train as far as the mouth of Rogue river, when, with Agent Olney, W. H. Wright, J. L. McPherson, and three Port Orford Indians, we proceeded in advance to the point on Illinois river, said to be Colonel Buchanan’s camp. This we reached, over a mountainous trail, on the morning of the 27th, but found the camp deserted. Following down the river to its junction with Rogue river we found a part of the colonel’s command.
Whilst encamped on Illinois river, Colonel Buchanan had succeeded in inducing the chiefs of all the bands in southern Oregon engaged in hostilities, including old John’s, George’s, and Limpy’s, to come into council, where, with the exception of John’s band, all had agreed to come in, give up their arms, and go to the reservation. John was willing to make peace, but would not agree to leave the country, but would live and die in it. An agreement was made by which Captain Smith and Lieutenant Switzer, with their companies, were to meet George’s, Limpy’s, Cow Creeks, and Galleace Creek bands in four days at the Big Bend of Rogue river, and escort them to the northern end of the coast reservation by way of Fort Lane. Other companies Were to meet at the coast, and some of the Rogue river bands at a point near the Macanoten village, six miles below the mouth of Illinois river, and escort them to the east reservation by way of Port Orford. In accordance with this arrangement, Captain Smith and Lieutenant Switzer went to the point indicated, and Captain Augur proceeded in the direction to the lower encampment. Major Reynolds was ordered to take the trail leading to Port Orford, expecting to meet Captain Ord with the pack train of supplies, and escort them to a point where the trails diverge to the respective encampments, with a view of forwarding supplies to the different companies.
The colonel had accompanied Captain Augur’s company to the top of the mountain when a messenger informed him of my arrival at the river camp, and that the pack train had taken another trail. This rendered it necessary that he should change his plans, which he did, by ordering the companies of Major Reynolds and Captain Smith back. About this time a messenger from Captain Smith’s camp informed him that they expected an attack from the Indians in that quarter. The messenger was sent back and the colonel or Captain Augur’s companies returned opposite the mouth of Illinois river, which is some seven miles below the Big Bend, or Captain Smith’s encampment. This point was reached at sunset. In the evening quite a number of canoes filled with Indians came up the river, many of whom appeared anxious to pass on to the Big Bend; others were merely wishing to fish; others desired to inform the upper bands of my arrival, &c.
A guard was placed at the river bank and none allowed to pass up. Quite a number remained with us through the night. In the morning we had a talk with the Port Orford Indians, from whom we learned that John had about one hundred warriors, who had resolved upon attacking Captain Smith’s command; but as there were about ninety men in the two companies, with a howitzer, no uneasiness was felt as to their safety. On the morning of the 28th Captain Augur was directed to open a trail up the river to the Big Bend; but soon after he left, the messenger, who had the day previous returned to Captain Smith’s camp, arrived, and reported that those companies were and had been during the night engaged in a fight with the Indians ; that the camp was entirely surrounded by them, and that he was unable to approach it. Captain Augur was immediately recalled and directed to take two days’ rations and proceed to reinforce Captain Smith. With agent Olney and W. H. Wright, I accompanied Captain Augur, reaching the Big Bend at 4 o’clock, p. m., where we found the Indians assembled to the number of, perhaps, two hundred, and the camp entirely surrounded. A charge was made by Captain Augur, and the Indians gave way, when Lieutenant Switzer charged those in the rear of his camp, driving them from their position, and the rout became general. The Indians left the field, when the camp was moved to a more eligible position. The engagement had lasted about thirty-six hours, the last twelve of which the army was without water. Seven men and one Indian ally were killed, and eighteen men wounded, one of whom mortally, up to the time of our arrival. In the charges made by Captain Augur two men were killed and three wounded. Previous to the engagement two women, nieces of chief Elijah, who is now with Sam’s band on the Grande Ronde reservation, came into Captain Smith’s camp and remained during the entire siege. On the morning of the 29th, I sent those two women as messengers to George and Limpy to advise them to come in and comply with the demand made by Colonel Buchanan. They returned on the same day with an Indian on horseback, who desired an interview with me. 1 met him outside of camp. He finally came in, and I sent by him a message to George and Limpy, as the women had failed seeing them, but brought a report that the volunteers had attacked their camp, killed George and several others, and had taken several women and children prisoners; but later in the day one of those said to have been killed, came with my messenger, who returned and informed me that George had made bis escape, but that one man and one woman had been killed, and one man wounded, and that George and Limpy would be here to-morrow. On the morning of the 30th, a messenger was sent to the Cow Creek, another to the Galleace Creek, and to John’s band. In the evening George and Limpy, with their people, came into camp, gave up their guns, and submitted as prisoners of war. They denied being in the recent engagement, and said they would have been in sooner, but John threatened, if they attempted it, he would shoot them.
On the 31st Major Lutshaw, with one hundred and fifty volunteers, reached the Big Bend, from the meadows, and remained until June 1, and then returned. They had taken a number of women and children prisoners. I requested that they might be turned over to me, as the men to whom the women and children belonged were prisoners in our camp. This was denied, with an avowal, on the part of the major, that they should not leave his command until they were turned over to his superior officer, and declared if they attempted to make their escape, or if they (his company) were attacked by other Indians, he would put them all to death; he alleging also, in his conversation, that the same bands which we were then getting in might have been got in three months ago upon the same conditions that they were coming into us, but that their orders were to take no prisoners.7
- Kasoatcha – Kautz, letter to Gibbs, B.A.E., ca 1855.
- Ko-so-a-cha – Gibbs, MS on Coast Tribes, B.A.E.
- ʞōs-o-tcĕ´ – Dorsey in Journal of American Folklore, III, 233, 1890. (Tututni name)
- Ku-so-cha-to-ny – Abbott, MS. Coquille census, B.A.E., 1858.
- Ku-su´-me´ʇûnnĕ´ – Dorsey in Journal of American Folklore, III, 233, 1890. (Naltunne-tunne name)
- Luckasos – Lewis and Clark Expedition, II, 119, 1814.
- Luckkarso – Lewis and Clark Expedition, II, 474, 1814.
- Lukkarso – Drake, Book of Indians, ix, 1848.
- Port Orford – Abbott, MS Coquille census, B.A.E. 1858. Letter from George W. Armstrong to G. W. Manpenny, 3 July 1856. Letter from Hon. Luke Lea to Brigham Young, 23 Sept. 1852.
The Luckasos, elsewere Luckkarsos, are known only through Lewis and Clark. The name is probably from Yu-qais´, an Alsea village (Yakonian family). ↩
Lewis, Coules, Clark and Jefferson; History of the expedition under the command of Lewis and Clark, 761, 1893. ↩
Letter from Hon. Luke Lea, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to Brigham Young, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Utah Division, Sept 23, 1852, as published by The United States Government, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 158, 1852. ↩
Interior Department, Indian Affairs Office, “Anson Dart submits 13 treaties negotiated with Indians of Oregon, also his report relative thereto,” Nov. 7, 1851, Archives. (Photostat copies of the report and five of the treaties are in the Bancroft Collection), Appendix A. ↩
Letter from George W. Armstrong, Indian Agent, to G. W. Manpenny, Commission of Indian Affairs, dated July 3, 1856, as published by The United States Congress, Congressional Edition, Volume 893, 765-6, 1857. ↩