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Keresan Pueblo Indians
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Keresan Pueblos. Keresan is adapted from K’eres, their own designation. Also called:
Keresan Pueblo Connections. These Indians constituted an independent stock having no affiliations with any other.
Keresan Pueblo Location. On the Rio Grande, in north central New Mexico, between the Rio de los Frijoles and the Rio Jemez, and on the latter stream from the pueblo of Sia to its mouth.
The Keresan Indians are divided dialectically into an Eastern (Queres) Group and a Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group, comprising the following pueblos:
Eastern (Queres) Group
Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group:
In addition to the above principal towns, we have the following ancient towns and later out-villages recorded:
Former towns of Cochiti and San Felipe:
Former towns of Santo Domingo:
Former towns of Sia:
Former towns of Acoma:
Keresan Pueblo History. Like the other Pueblo peoples of New Mexico, the Keressans traced their origin to the underworld, whence they had emerged at an opening called Shipapu. According to the tradition, they after-ward drifted south slowly to the Rio Grande, where they took up their residence in the Rito de los Frijoles, or Tyuonyi, and constructed the cliff dwellings found there today excavated in the friable volcanic tufa. Long before the coming of Europeans, they had abandoned the Rito and moved farther south, separating into a number of autonomous village communities. Coronado, who visited them in 1540, reported seven of these. In 1583 Espejo encountered them and in 1598 Oñate. Missions were established in most of the principal towns early in the seventeenth century, but they were annihilated and Spanish dominion temporarily brought to an end by the great Pueblo rebellion of 1680, which was not finally quelled until about the end of the eighteenth century. Afterward, missionary work was resumed but without pronounced success, while the native population itself gradually declined in numbers. Although some of the most conservative pueblos belong to this group, they will not be able indefinitely to resist the dissolving force of American civilization in which they are immersed.
Keresan Pueblo Population. In 1760 there were 3,956 Keresans; i n 1790-93, 4,021; in 1805, 3,653; in 1850, 3,342; in 1860, 2,676; in 1871, 3,317; in 1901-5, 4,249; in 1910, 4,027; in 1930, 4,134; in 1937, 5,781.
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