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The Kansas are an offshoot of the Osages, whom they resemble in many respects. In 1673 they were placed on Marquette’s map as on the Missouri, above the Osages. After the cession of Louisiana, a treaty was made with them by the United States. They were then on the river Kansas at the mouth of the Saline, having been forced back from the Missouri by the Sioux, and numbered about 1,500 in 130 earthen lodges. Some of their chiefs visited Washington as early as 1820. In 1825 ceded their lands on the Missouri, retaining a reservation on the Kansas, where they were constantly subjected to attacks from the Pawnees, and on their hunts from other tribes, so that they lost rapidly in numbers. In 1846 they again ceded their lands, and a new reservation of 80,000 acres on the Neosho in Kansas assigned them; but this also soon becoming overrun by settlers, and as they would not cultivate it themselves, it was sold, and the proceeds invested for their benefit and for pro viding a new home among the Osages. The tribe in 1850 numbered 1,300; in 1860, 800; and in 1875 had dwindled to 516. Under the guidance of Orthodox Friends they are now cultivating 460 acres, and have broken more than as much again. They raised among other things 12,000 bushels of corn; 70 of them are regular church attendants, and 54 of their children attend school.
List of illustrations.
397. Little Bear
398. Ka-Ke-Ga-Sha. (Standing.)
399. Ka-Ke-Ga-Sha. (Sitting.)