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Indian Tribes in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and North West Territories, 1822
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I have given in the Appendix,1 so full an account of the Indians, who remain in this State, in answer to the enquiries of the Government, that very few observations remain to be made in this place. It seems not easy the reconcile the accounts given of the feelings and opinions of the Delawares, by the Indian Agent, and the Rev. Mr. Sergeant.2 These differences render it difficult to determine the real state of facts. Very considerable attention has been paid to the instruction of these Indians by several denominations of Christians, more especially by the Society of Friends, and the favorable results are stated. Several remarks of Rev. Mr. Hoge in his letter,3 are worthy of special notice, particularly the following. ” They (the Indians) begin to be convinced, that their migratory life is unfriendly to their welfare; that it will soon be impossible to gain subsistence by hunting; that they must have recourse to agriculture and the mechanic arts.” These convictions are undoubtedly fast becoming general among the sensible part of the tribes within the circle of our settlements.
On the subject of Colonization, the reply of Richardville,4 expresses the sentiments of some of the Indians, who have a controlling influence over their respective tribes. ” I think,” says this sensible Chief, in answer to my question to him” I think the plan of collecting the Indians now scattered, into large bodies, for the purpose of educating them with more convenience, and at less expense, both practicable and advantageous.”
Few of the Indians mentioned in the Table, as having resided in this State, thirty years ago, are now to be found. They have been scattered and diminished in the manner that hundreds of other tribes have been before them.
“every returning day found them the sole, the peaceful, the happy proprietors of this extensive domain. But the white man came, audio! the animated chase, the feast, the dance, the song, of fearless thoughtless joy, were over. Ever since, they have been made to drink of the bitter cup of humiliation: treated like dogs, their lives, their liberties, the sport of the white mentheir country, and the graves of their fathers, torn from them in cruel succession; until, driven from river to river, from forest to forest, and through a period of two hundred years rolled back, nation upon nation, they find themselves fugitives, vagrants, and strangers in their own country!” British Spy.
I put these together, because, though distinct territories, they are at present under one Government, administered by one Governor. Some parts of these Territories, as Detroit, Mackinaw, Green Bay, and Prairie du Chien, have been places of renown in ancient and modern wars; but the countries around them, till very lately, remained unexplored, known only to the native tribes, who occupied them as their hunting grounds. Within a few years, these territories have risen into such importance, as that the Government of the United States, by their appointed Agents, have explored them to their remotest corners. Bordering, to a great extent, on the line which divides the United States from the British colony of Upper Canada, embracing points of much importance in conducting our Indian Trade, it has been thought necessary to be acquainted with them, that we might be the better able to avail ourselves of the advantages which belong to us, and to defend ourselves against encroachments. The survey of this wide spread wilderness has brought to our knowledge large bodies of Indians, hitherto known only to a few, who have been in the practice of trading with them.
At different, distant, and commanding points within these Territories, five military posts have been established, and a sixth is in contemplation.5 These posts are intended to protect our rights in carrying on the Indian trade, and to exert an influence to preserve peace on these borders between us and the Indians, and between their different tribes, and to protect and aid any Education establishments which may be made in their vicinity. These circumstances, with that which has often been brought up to view, the selection of some part of these Territories, as the seat of a colony of Indians; and another, that this is the part of our country which I have personally visited, have led me to give a full and particular account of them. The view of them, which will be found in the Appendix,6 renders it unnecessary here to add any further information on the several topics enumerated in my Commission. The whole of these Territories constitute one great field for moral cultivation; and when Education Families shall have been planted at the different military posts, a plan seriously contemplated, of immense importance; and which it is hoped will shortly he carried into effect, a channel, through them, will be opened to many large tribes W. of the Mississippi, to the Council Bluffs. Here again a military post is established, and a large Education Family are ready to occupy this commanding station. All the tribes within the United States, N. of the Missouri, as far W. as the Council Bluffs, and beyond them, placed between these posts and these families, may be made to feel, in a greater or less degree, their combined, controlling, civilizing, and reforming influence.
|State or Tribe||Population||Location|
|Munsees, Delawares, Sopoonees||30 years ago there were of these tribes in this state about 1,300 souls. Of the number now remaining, of their condition, and of the places of their abode, no information has been received.|
|Wyandots||364||Upper Sandusky, on Sandusky River, 44 miles south of Sandusky Bay.|
|Wyandots||44||Zanes, Mad River, on the headwaters of the Great Miami of Ohio.|
|Wyandots||27||Fort Finley, waters of the Auglaise, on Hulls road.|
|Wyandots||97||Solomon's town, on the Great Miami of Ohio.|
|Shawnees||550||Wapaghkonetta, 27 miles north of Pequa.|
|Shawnees||72||Hog creek, 10 miles north of Wapaghkonetta.|
|Shawnees||160||Lewiston, 35 miles northeast of Pequa.|
|Senecas||348||Seneca town, Sandusky River, between Upper and Lower Sandusky.|
|Senecas||203||Lewiston, 35 miles northeast of Pequa,|
|Delawares||80||Upper Sandusky, Sandusky River.|
|Mohawks||57||Honey Creek, near Upper Sandusky, Sandusky River|
|Ottawas||107||Auglaize River, 15 miles north of Wapaghkonetta.|
|Ottawas||64||12 miles west or Fort Defiance.|
|Ottawas||50||Rock do Beauef, near the rapids of Miami of Lake Erie.|
|Ottawas||150||Not stationary, about Miami Bay, on south shore Lake Erie.|
|Michigan and Northwest Territories||28,880|
|Wyandots||37||On Huron River, 30 miles from Detroit, Michigan Territory.|
|Pottawattamies||100||On Huron River, Michigan territory.|
|Chippawas (a)||5,000||On Saganan Bay, River, find vicinity.|
|Ottawas||52,873||Along the east shore of Lake. Michigan, on the rivers, it 11 villages.|
|Chippawas||8,335||From Mackinaw, west along the shore of Lake Superior to the Mississippi, 10 settlements.|
|Chippawas and Ottawas||1,000||In villages scattered from the ninth silo of Lake Superior, slang the west side of Green Bay and Michigan Lake, to Chicago.|
|Menominees||3,900||In a number of villages on Winnebago Lake, Fox River, Green Bay, and Menominee River.|
|Winnebagoes (b)||5,800||In the river country, on Winnebago Lake, and southwest of it to the Mississippi,|
(a) Colonel Dickson, long a resident among the Chippawas, states their number residing about the Great Lake as 10,000. Others make the whole number of the tribe 30,000.
(b) Major O’Fallon states the number of Winnebagoes at about 4,000.
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