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Indian Census Records Online
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The first federal decennial census that clearly identifies any Native Americans is the 1860 census. The instructions to the 1860 census enumerators defined who was to be counted and who was not:
Indians not taxed are not to be enumerated. The families of Indians who have renounced tribal rule, and who under state or territory laws exercise the rights of citizens, are to be enumerated.
Most genealogy guides that address Native Americans in the census incorrectly state that the first federal decennial census in which at least a portion of the Indian population is enumerated is 1870. Although the 1870 census schedule is the first to list “Indian” as a choice in the column heading for “Color,” Native Americans were enumerated earlier. Even though the 1860 census schedule does not include “Indian” as a choice in the column heading for “Color,” enumerators nevertheless followed the instructions cited in the previous paragraph and recorded more than 40,000 Indians.
The following consist mostly of free resources for finding Indian census records online. We do provide links to the paid subscription websites when there is either added value in their paid version, or when there is not a free version available online. We welcome additional submissions through the comments form below.Free US Indian Census Rolls 1885-1940
Previously these rolls could only be found on paid genealogy sites such as Ancestry and Fold3 and you had to pay for access. These rolls are still available at those sites and are completely searchable from there. For more information see:
Many of the Choptank Indians were named in the deeds by which they sold their land in Dorchester County, Maryland between 1726 and 1727
1818 Chickasaw Census Roll, Partial (hosted at Chokmah!)
On Thursday, October 8th, began enrolling members of the Chickasaw Nation for the purpose of distributing the annuity when it arrived.
1832 Creek Census
By a treaty of March 24, 1832, the Creek Indians ceded to the United States all of their land east of the Mississippi River. Heads of families were entitled to tracts of land, which, if possible, were to include their improvements.
1832 Creek Census, Images
1835 Cherokee East of the Mississippi Census Index
In 1835, the Cherokee Nation contained almost 22,000 Cherokees and almost 300 Whites connected by marriage.
Census of the First Christian and Orchard Parties of Oneida Indians
Census of the First Christian and Orchard Parties of Oneida Indians, residing at Green Bay, Wisconsin Territory, taken by Henry S. Baird, U.S. Commissioner, on November 15, 1838, under provisions of the Treaty of February 3, 1838
Osage Census – 1842
Submitted by William Armstrong Acting Superintendent, Western Territory, 1842. This census was taken for the purpose of an annuity payment.
Census lists a number, name, number of males and females and total numbers. Males and females are listed as under 10, 10-40, and over 40.
1847 Census of the Catawba Native Americans (hosted at York County SCGenWeb)
1854 Census of the Catawba Native Americans (hosted at York County SCGenWeb)
Wyandot Tribal Roll 1867
(State of Colorado)
Shawnee 1871 Census
Register of the names of members of the Shawnee Tribe of Indians who have moved to and located in the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, (prior to the 10th day of June, 1871) within two years from the 9th day of June 1869, in accordance with an agreement entered into by and between the Shawnee Tribe of Indians and the Cherokee Nation of Indians, through their Delegations in Washington City, D.C. United States of America, on the 7th day of June, 1869 Jan Gilles
1882 Creek (Muskogee Nation Census (Creek Indian Researcher)
1885 Choctaw Census (by Rusty Lang)
1889 Mdewakanton Sioux Census
Sioux living in Minnesota. Compiled by Robert B. Henton Special Indian Agent. No information was given as to where exactly they lived.
1890 Smith’s First Directory of Oklahoma Territory (May include Indians) (hosted at Oklahoma Historical Society)
Cherokee Intruder Census 1893 (compiled by Sandra Martinez)
1895 & 1896 Choctaw Census (compiled by Sandra Martinez)
Enrollment of the Five Civilized Tribes 1896 Applications
This is the Index of Cherokees, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Creek found on microfilm M1650 obtained from the National Archives in Fort Worth, Texas. If your ancestor was on the 1896 Cherokee Census they probably will NOT be on this index. This is NOT the 1896 CENSUS. It is an index of people who were NOT recognized by the Cherokee Tribe and subsequently made application to be considered for citizenship.
1896 Census of New York Indians
Census of the New York Indians taken in 1896. The following census extractions provide the details from the 1896 census for the Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, St. Regis and Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians.
Census of the Blackfeet, Montana, 1897-1898 (hosted at Ancestry.com)
1900 Census of the York County Indian Reservation (hosted at York County SCGenWeb)
1900 Federal Census Rosebud Indian Reservation, Myers County, SD (hosted at USGenWeb Census Project)
Indian Reservations, Oklahoma Territory 1900 Federal Census (hosted at USGenWeb Census Project)
Otoe Reservation, Oklahoma Territory 1900 Federal Census (hosted at USGenWeb Census Project)
1904 Taggart Census Roll, Potawatomi of Michigan
1910 Sioux Census ~ New Jersey
This is a most interesting piece of information, especially for those who have lost Sioux ancestors in 1910. All give South Dakota as their birthplace and the birthplace of both parents. All say they are full-blooded Sioux. All give occupation as “Wild West Show.” Karin Simpson
Census Of Kiowa Indians Alive On On June 30, 1912, The Kiowa Agency, Anadarko, Okla.
Field Survey and Individual Indian Report of the Heart Butte District
Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana Accompanied by Briefs and Pictures.
1916 Reeve’s Report
A report by John T. Reeves, Special Supervisor, Indian Service, on need of additional land and school facilities for the Indians living in the state of Mississippi. Includes a census of those Indians residing in Mississippi in 1916.
1920 Oklahoma Census (hosted at Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, Black Indians)
1929 Mississippi Choctaw Census (hosted at Christine’s Genealogy Website)
1930 Oklahoma Census (hosted at Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, Black Indians)
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