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Condition of the New Mexico Indians in 1890

 

Map Showing Location of Pueblos in New Mexico

Map Showing Location of Pueblos in New Mexico

The Jicarilla Apaches, Mescalero Apaches (including 40 Lipans), and the Navajos are of Athapascan stock.

The Navajo reservation lies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, but the agency is in New Mexico. The total number of Navajos is 17,204, entirely self-supporting, of which 5,169 are in New Mexico, 11,042 are in Arizona, and 993 are in Utah or roaming.. (For data as to the Navajos (Apache) see Arizona.)

The Pueblo Indians, who live in 19 pueblos or towns, are citizens of the United States. The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of New Mexico, counted in the general census, number 8,554 (4,553 males and 4,001 females), and are distributed as follows:

Bernalillo County, 3,409; Colfax County, 18; Mora County, 25; Rio Arriba County, 499; San Miguel County, 45; Santa Fe County, 589; Socorro, County, 14; Taos County, 505; Valencia County, 3,374; other counties (11 or less in each), 16.

There are less than 300 civilized Indians in New Mexico besides the Pueblo Indians.

New Mexico Indians Population of Reservations and Pueblos

Agencies and ReservationsTribeTotalMalesFemalesRation Indians
Totall4,7777,0807,097735
   Meeealcro agency513226287410
   Southern Ute agency808389419325
   Navajo agency5,1692,6172,552
   Pueblo agency8,2874,4483,839
Mescalero  agency
Mescalero Apache (Fort Stanton) reservationMescalero (Apache) and Lipans513226287410
Southern Ute agency, Colorado
Jicarilla Apache reservation (a)Jicarilla (Apache)808389419325
   Navajo agency
Navajo reservation (the portion in New MexicoNavajo (Apache)5,1602,6172,552
   Pueblo agency
19 Indian pueblosPueblos (3 stocks)8,2874,4483,839

Tribe, Stock and Location of the New Mexico Indians

TribesStockReservationAgency
JicarillaAthapascanJicarilla ApacheSouthern Ute
LipanAthapascanMescalero ApacheMescalero
MescaleroAthapascanMescalero ApacheMescalero
NavajoAthapascanNavajoNavajo
Pueblo:
   AcomaKeresanA puebloPueblo
CochitiKeresanA puebloPueblo
   IsletaTewanA puebloPueblo
JemezTewanA puebloPueblo
LagunaKeresanA puebloPueblo
NambeTewanA puebloPueblo
PicurisTewanA puebloPueblo
PojoaqueTewanA puebloPueblo
SandiaTewanA puebloPueblo
San DomingoKeresanA puebloPueblo
San FelipeKeresanA puebloPueblo
San IldefonaoTewanA puebloPueblo
San JuanTewanA puebloPueblo
Santa AnaKeresanA puebloPueblo
Santa ClaraTewanA puebloPueblo
TaosTewanA puebloPueblo
TesnqueTewanA puebloPueblo
ZiaKeresanA puebloPueblo
ZuñiZuñianA puebloPueblo

Mescalero Apache Reservation

The Mescalero Apaches have been on this reservation since 1874. They were, prior to this, 3 years at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, 36 miles from their present reservation, Prior to their being placed on a reservation their location was in New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, from Santa Fe north to Del Norte south. It is claimed by Chief Nautzila that these Indians were on this range before, the cities of Santa Fe and La Hoja were built. No tribes or bands, which are credited as being on the reservation, are extinct or merged into other tribes. There are 40 Lipans (Apaches) on the reservation whose former location was Mexico, H. Rhodes, United States Indian agent.

Jicarilla Apache Reservation

The Jicarilla Apaches are composed of 2 bands, the Jicarillas and Olleros, about equal in number, both bands living together on the reservation, which is nearly square, located in northwestern New Mexico and almost due south of the Southern Ute reservation, Colorado. These are blanket (or wild) Indians, and originally were kept at the Cimarron agency, New Mexico, southeast of their present location. They were taken there in 1868, when the Utes were moved. They came to this reservation in 1887, when it was established. The Apaches lived in close proximity to the 2 bands of the Utes, and were looked after by the same agent. Again, they are almost identical with the Navajos, with a very slight difference in habits and language. They intermarry with the Utes and Navajos. They are very industrious, and will work as well as the average white man. They have occupied the land now in New Mexico always. C. A. Bartholomew, United States Indian agent.

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