Condition of the New Mexico Indians in 1890

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Map Showing Location of Pueblos in New Mexico
Map Showing Location of Pueblos in New Mexico

The Jicarilla Apaches, Mescalero Apaches (including 40 Lipans), and the Navajos are of Athapascan stock.

The Navajo reservation lies in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, but the agency is in New Mexico. The total number of Navajos is 17,204, entirely self-supporting, of which 5,169 are in New Mexico, 11,042 are in Arizona, and 993 are in Utah or roaming.. (For data as to the Navajos (Apache) see Arizona.)

The Pueblo Indians, who live in 19 pueblos or towns, are citizens of the United States. The civilized (self-supporting) Indians of New Mexico, counted in the general census, number 8,554 (4,553 males and 4,001 females), and are distributed as follows:

Bernalillo County, 3,409; Colfax County, 18; Mora County, 25; Rio Arriba County, 499; San Miguel County, 45; Santa Fe County, 589; Socorro, County, 14; Taos County, 505; Valencia County, 3,374; other counties (11 or less in each), 16.

There are less than 300 civilized Indians in New Mexico besides the Pueblo Indians.

New Mexico Indians Population of Reservations and Pueblos

Agencies and Reservations Tribe Total Males Females Ration Indians
Total l4,777 7,080 7,097 735
   Meeealcro agency 513 226 287 410
   Southern Ute agency 808 389 419 325
   Navajo agency 5,169 2,617 2,552
   Pueblo agency 8,287 4,448 3,839
Mescalero  agency
Mescalero Apache (Fort Stanton) reservation Mescalero (Apache) and Lipans 513 226 287 410
Southern Ute agency, Colorado
Jicarilla Apache reservation (a) Jicarilla (Apache) 808 389 419 325
   Navajo agency
Navajo reservation (the portion in New Mexico Navajo (Apache) 5,160 2,617 2,552
   Pueblo agency
19 Indian pueblos Pueblos (3 stocks) 8,287 4,448 3,839

Tribe, Stock and Location of the New Mexico Indians

Tribes Stock Reservation Agency
Jicarilla Athapascan Jicarilla Apache Southern Ute
Lipan Athapascan Mescalero Apache Mescalero
Mescalero Athapascan Mescalero Apache Mescalero
Navajo Athapascan Navajo Navajo
Pueblo:
   Acoma Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
Cochiti Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
   Isleta Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Jemez Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Laguna Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
Nambe Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Picuris Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Pojoaque Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Sandia Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
San Domingo Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
San Felipe Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
San Ildefonao Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
San Juan Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Santa Ana Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
Santa Clara Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Taos Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Tesnque Tewan A pueblo Pueblo
Zia Keresan A pueblo Pueblo
Zuñi Zuñian A pueblo Pueblo

Mescalero Apache Reservation

The Mescalero Apaches have been on this reservation since 1874. They were, prior to this, 3 years at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, 36 miles from their present reservation, Prior to their being placed on a reservation their location was in New Mexico east of the Rio Grande, from Santa Fe north to Del Norte south. It is claimed by Chief Nautzila that these Indians were on this range before, the cities of Santa Fe and La Hoja were built. No tribes or bands, which are credited as being on the reservation, are extinct or merged into other tribes. There are 40 Lipans (Apaches) on the reservation whose former location was Mexico, H. Rhodes, United States Indian agent.

Jicarilla Apache Reservation

The Jicarilla Apaches are composed of 2 bands, the Jicarillas and Olleros, about equal in number, both bands living together on the reservation, which is nearly square, located in northwestern New Mexico and almost due south of the Southern Ute reservation, Colorado. These are blanket (or wild) Indians, and originally were kept at the Cimarron agency, New Mexico, southeast of their present location. They were taken there in 1868, when the Utes were moved. They came to this reservation in 1887, when it was established. The Apaches lived in close proximity to the 2 bands of the Utes, and were looked after by the same agent. Again, they are almost identical with the Navajos, with a very slight difference in habits and language. They intermarry with the Utes and Navajos. They are very industrious, and will work as well as the average white man. They have occupied the land now in New Mexico always. C. A. Bartholomew, United States Indian agent.



MLA Source Citation:

Department of the Interior. Report on Indians Taxed and Indians not Taxed in the United States, Except Alaska at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington DC: Government Printing Office. 1894. AccessGenealogy.com. Web. 30 August 2014. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/condition-of-the-new-mexico-indians-in-1890.htm - Last updated on Jun 26th, 2013


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