Indian Tribes of California
The territory of the present
State of California was discovered in 1542 by a Portuguese navigator in
the Spanish service, J. R. Cabrillo. In 1578 Sir Francis Drake landed at Drake's Bay, opened
communication with the natives, and took possession of the country in the
name of England, calling it New Albion. It was explored by the Spaniard S.
Viscayno in 1602, but no attempt was made at colonization until the
Franciscan Fathers established a mission at San Diego in 1769. Within the
next 50 years they founded 21 missions and gathered 20,000 Indians about
them, but the number of neophytes continually fell off and the power of
the missions declined with them, especially after Mexican government had
succeeded to Spanish. Transfer of the country to the United States and the
rush of immigrants following upon the discovery of gold in 1848 was still
more disastrous to the Indians and this disaster extended to parts of the
State which the Spaniards had not reached. From this time on the history
of the Indians of this area is one long story of debauchery and
extermination. Reservations were set aside for most of the tribes, but the
greater part of the survivors live scattered through the country as
squatters or on land purchased by themselves.
In dealing with the tribes of California, I have adopted the names given
by Dr. Kroeber in his Handbook of the Indians of California (1925). An
inspection of these shows us at once. however, that the tribal concept in
most parts of the State is one imposed upon the
Indians as a result of ethnological investigation rather than something
recognized by themselves. It has a dialectic rather than a governmental or
ceremonial base, but it is the best that can be done unless we adopt the impracticable alternative of treating each village group as a tribe. It is
to be understood that, from the ordinary point of view as to what
constitutes a tribe, this expedient is largely artificial. Under these
circumstances it has seemed best not to follow a strictly alphabetic
system throughout, or rather, to enter those tribes defined by their names
as parts of larger groups under the more common group names, the
qualifying word following, as: Paiute, Northern, and Yuki, Coast, instead
of Northern Paiute and Coast Yuki.
Connections in which they have become noted. That few names of California
tribes have found permanent lodgment in the geography of the region is not surprising when we consider the small number of names of this kind at all
prominent. This is in keeping with the fact that tribal organizations as
they were known in eastern North America were wanting over much of the
State, and that where they existed they were generally small and
insignificant. It also happens that a few real tribal names, or names that
have been used to cover tribal groups, include peoples which extended into
neighboring States and have been treated elsewhere. Under this head come
the names of Modoc County, Klamath River, Mohave River, Mono County and
Lake, and Piute Peak. Still other names are derived from villages and
small tribes, mere subdivisions of the main bodies. Among these may be
mentioned Tuolumne County, Mokelumne Peak and River, Cosumnes River,
Kaweah River. While the designation of the Shasta is a conspicuous one it
is rather the mountain which has given name to the tribe than the tribe to
the mountain, though in fact both are derived from a chief of the Shasta
people. Following from the use of the term for Mount Shasta we have Shasta
River, Shasta, Shasta Retreat, Shasta Springs. The history of the name
Hupa has been somewhat similar. It has remained attached to the valley to
which it was originally applied and to the tribe secondarily.
Nevertheless, the valley name now serves to preserve in memory that of the
people who occupied it.
Achomawi. From adzúma or achóma, "river."
Kō'm-maidüm, Maidu name, meaning "snow people."
Shawash, Yuki name for the Achomawi taken to Round Valley Reservation.
Connections. The Achomawi were originally classed with the Atsugewi as one
stock under the name Palaihnihan, the Achomawan stock of Merriam (1926),
and this in turn constitutes the eastern branch of the Shastan stock,
which in turn is now placed under the widely spread Hokan family.
Location. In the drainage
area of Pit River from near Montgomery Creek in Shasta County to Goose
Lake on the Oregon line, with the exception of the territory watered by
Burney, Hat, and Horse or Dixie Valley Creeks.
Kroeber (1925) gives the following:
|Achomawi, on Fall River.
Astakiwi, in upper Hot Springs Valley.
Atuami, in Big Valley.
Hamawi, on the South Fork of Pit River.
Hantiwi, in lower Hot Springs Valley.
Ilmawi, on the south side of Pit River opposite Fort Crook.
Madehsi, the lowest on Pit River along the big bend.
C. H. Merriam (1926) says that
Achomawi is the Madehsi name for the Astakiwi which occupied all of Hot
Springs Valley, and he adds the names of two other tribes between the last
mentioned and Goose Lake, the Ko-se-al-lak'-te, and, higher up, at the
lower end of the lake, the Hā'-we-si'-doc.
Population. Together with
the Atsugewi, the Achomawi are estimated by Kroeber (1925) to have
numbered 3,000 in 1770; in 1910 there were 985. According to the census of
1930, the entire Shastan stock numbered 844, and in 1937, 418 "Pit River"
Indians were enumerated, only a portion of the stock apparently.
bestowed by the Ventura() Chumash; meaning unknown.
Connections. The Alliklik
belonged to the Californian group of the Shoshonean division of the
Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest relatives probably being the
Location. On the upper
Santa Clara River.
Villages. Akavavi Kashtu, Etseng, Huyang, Küvung,
and Pi'idhuku (on Piru Creek, the last mentioned at Piru); Kamulus (on
Castac Creek); Kashtük Tsawayung (on a
branch of Castac Creek).
Population. The Alliklik
together with the Serrano, Vanyume, and Kitanemuk, numbered 3,500 in 1770
and 150 in 1910. The census of 1930 returned 361 southern California
Atsugewi. Their own name or
that which the Achomawi applied to them; significance unknown.
Adwanuqdji, Ilmawi name.
Hat Creek Indians, popular English name.
Tcunoíyana, Yana name.
Connections. With the
Achomawi, the Atsugewi constituted the Palaihnihan or eastern group of the
Shastan stock, more recently placed by Dixon and Kroeber (1919) in the
Location. On Burney, Hat,
and Dixie Valley or Horse Creeks.
Kroeber (1925) gives: Apwarukei (Dixie Valley people), Hat Creek people
(native name unknown), and Wamari'i (Burney Valley people).
C. G. Merriam (1926) calls the Hat Creek people
collectively At-soo-kā'-e (Atsugewi)
and treats most of the Burney Valley Indians as part of the Atsugewi
estimates that in 1770 there were 3,000 of the Atsugewi and the Achomawi
together. The Shastan Indians numbered 844 in 1930.
Bear River Indians.
A body of Indians living along Bear River in the present Humboldt County
for whom no suitable native name has been preserved. Also called:
Nī'ekeni', name they
applied to themselves and to the Mattole.
Connections. The Bear
River Indians belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family, and were most
closely connected with the Mattole, Sinkyone, and Nongatl tribes to the
south and east.
Location. As given above.
(See North Carolina for a tribe similarly named.)
From the mouth of Bear River inland as given by Nomland
|Tcalko', at the mouth of Bear River.
Chilshĕck, on the site of the
Chilenchĕ, near the present
Selsche'ech, on a site marked by a large red rock 3–4 miles above
the last. Tlanko, above the preceding.
Estakana, at Gear's place, on the largest flat in the upper valley
above Tlanko. Sehtla, about 7 miles above Capetown.
Me'sseah, name for a natural amphitheater, the training place for
shamans, about which lived a few families.
Population. Included with
the Nongatl (q. v.). 1,129 were returned in the census of 1930. The United
States Office of Indian Affairs reported 23 "Bear River" Indians in 1937.
Cahuilla. A name perhaps of
Spanish origin, but its significance is unknown. Also spelled Kawia.
Connections. The Cahuilla
belonged to the southern California group of the Shoshonean division of
the Uto-Aztecan stock.
Location. Mainly in the
inland basin between the San Bernardino Range and the range extending
southward from Mount San Jacinto.
Desert Cahuilla, at northern end of the
Mountain Cahuilla, in the mountains south of San Jacinto Peak.
Western or Pass Cahuilla, centering in Palms Springs Canyon.
Duasno, on or near the Cahuilla Reservation.
Juan Bautista, in San Bernardino County.
Ekwawinet, at La Mesa, 2 miles south of Coachella.
Kavinish, at Indian Wells.
Cahuilla, on the Cahuilla Reservation.
Kwaleki, in the San Jacinto Mountains.
Lawilvan or Sivel, at Alamo.
Malki, on the Potrero Reservation in Cahuilla Valley east of
Pachawal, at San Ygnacio. Palseta, at Cabezon.
Paltewat, at Indio in Cahuilla Valley.
Panachsa, in the San Jacinto Mountains.
Sechi, in Cahuilla Valley.
Sokut Menyil, at Martinez.
Sapela, at San Ygnacio.
Temalwahish, at La Mesa. Torres, on Torres Reservation.
Tova, at Agua Dulce.
Wewutnowhu, at Santa Rosa.
(1925) estimates 2,500 Cahuilla in 1770; in 1910 there were about 800.
Connection in which their
name has become noted. The name Cahuilla is preserved in that of a
village called Kaweah in Tulare County.
Chemehuevi. The Yuman
name for this tribe and for the Paiute; significance unknown. Also called:
Ah'alakåt, Pima name, meaning
Mat-hat-e-vátch, Yuma name,
Tä'n-ta'wats, own name, meaning
Chemehuevi were a part of the true Paiute and were associated with them
and the Ute in one linguistic subdivision of the Shoshonean division of
the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.
Location. Anciently in
the eastern half of the Mohave Desert. At a later date the Chemehuevi
settled on Cottonwood Island, in Chemehuevi Valley, and at other points on
(So far as known)
Hokwaits, in Ivanpah Valley.
Kauyaichits, location unknown.
Mokwats, at the Kingston Mountains.
Moviats, on Cottonwood Island.
Shivawach or Shivawats, in the Chernehucvi Valley, perhaps only the
name of a locality.
Tumpisagavatsits or Timpashauwagotsits, in the Providence
Yagats, at Afnargosa.
(1925) estimates between 500 and 800 Chemehuevi in ancient times. In 1910,
355 were returned of whom 260 were in California.
Chetco. The Chetco extended slightly across into northern California from
its home in Oregon.
Chilula. An American
rendering of Yurok Tsulu-la, "people of Tsulu," the Bald Hills.
Connections. With the
Hupa and Whilkut, the Chilula formed one group of the Athapascan
Location. On or near
lower Redwood Creek from near the inland edge of the heavy redwood belt to
a few miles above Minor Creek.
Villages. The following
are known and are given in order beginning with the one farthest down
Redwood Creek: Howunakut, Noleding, Tlochime, Kingkyolai, Kingyukyomunga,
Yisining'aikut, Tsinsilading, Tondinunding, Yinukanomitseding, Hontetlme,
Tlocheke, Hlichuhwinauhwding, Kailuhwtanding, Kailuhwchengetlding,
Sikingchwungmitanding, Kinahontanding, Misme, Kahustanding.
(1925) estimates 500 to 600 Chilula before White contact. Now reduced to
two or three families and a few persons incorporated with the Hupa. (See
Bear River Indians.)
Chimariko. From the native
word chimar, "person." Also called:
Kwoshonipu, name probably given them by the Shasta of Salmon River.
Meyemma, given by Gibbs (1853).
considered a distinct stock, the Chimariko are now classed in the Hokan
Location. On the canyon
of Trinity River from about the mouth of New River to Canyon Creek.
Chalitasum, at the junction of New and Trinity Rivers.
Chichanma, at Taylor Flat.
Himeakudji, at Big Creek.
Hodinakchohoda, at Cedar Flat.
Maidjasore, at Thomas.
Paktunadji, at Patterson.
Tsudamdadji, at Burnt Ranch.
Population. The Chimariko
were estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 250 in 1849; only a few mixed-bloods
are now living.
From Kupa, the name of one of their towns.
Connections. The Cupeno
spoke a dialect belonging to the Luiseno-Cahuilla branch of the Shoshonean
division of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock.
Location. A mountainous
district on the headwaters of San Luis Rey River, not over 10 by 5 miles
Kupa, near the famous hot springs of Warner's Ranch.
Wilakal, at San Ysidro.
(1925) estimates not over 500 in 1770, and in 1910, 150. (See
Athapascan tribe of Oregon which extended slightly beyond the northern
border of California. (See Oregon.)
Esselen. Probably the name
of a village; significance unknown.
given the status of a distinct stock, the Esselen are now placed in the
Ilokan linguistic family, their affinities being rather with the Yuman
division, to the south, and with the Porno, Yana, and other groups to the
north than with their closer neighbors of this stock, the Salinan and
Location. On the upper
course of Carmel River, Sur River, and the coast from Point Lopez almost
to Point Sur.
Echilat, 12 miles southeast of Mission Carmelo.
Ekheya, in the mountains.
Ensen, at Buena Esperanza.
Ichenta, at San Jose.
Pachhepes, near the next.
Xaseum, in the sierra.
(1925) estimates 500 Esselen in 1770; they are now extinct.
from San Fernando, the name of one of the
two Franciscan missions in Los Angeles County.
Connections. The nearest
relatives of the Fernandeno were the Gabrielino and both belonged to the
California section of the Shoshonean Division of the Uto Aztecan
Location. In that part of
the valley of Los Angeles River above Los Angeles.
Hahamo, north of Los Angeles.
Kawe, northwest of Los Angeles. Mau, north
of Los Angeles.
Pasek, at San Francisco Mission.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates that, with the Gabrielino and
Nicoleno, the Fernandeno numbered 5,000 in 1770; they are now practically
Halchidhoma. On the middle Colorado. (See Arizona.)
Huchnom. The name applied to this tribe by the Yuki and apparently by themselves; said to signify"mountain people." Also called:
Redwoods, a popular name.
Ta'-tu, by the Porno of Potter Valley.
Connection. The Huchnom belonged to the Yukian linguistic stock, though
resembling the Porno somewhat more closely in culture.
Location. In the valley of South Eel River from Hullville nearly to its
mouth, together with the valley of its affluent, Tornki Creek, and the
lower course of the stream known as Deep or Outlet Creek.
|Ba'awel, name in Porno; on South Eel River a couple of miles from Ukumna. Hatupoka, on Tomki Creek below the village of Pukemul.
Komohmemut-kuyuk, on South Eel River between Lilko'ol and Mumemel.
Lilko'ol, on South Eel River between Ba'awel and the preceding.
Mot, on South Eel River between Yek and Mupan.
Mot-kuyuk, on South Eel River at the mouth of Tomki Creek.
Mumemel, on South Eel River just below the forks at Hullville.
Mupan, on South Eel River between Mot and Mot-kuyuk.
Nonhohou, on South Eel River between Shipomul and Yek.
Pukemul, on Tomki Creek above the village of Hatupoka.
Shipomul, on South Eel River at the mouth of Outlet Creek.
Ukumna, near the head of the eastern source of Russian River.
Yek, on South Eel River between Nonhohou and Mot.
There is one village of uncertain name and possibly Yuki on the headwaters
of the South Fork of Eel River.
Population. The Huchnom were estimated at 500 in 1770 by Kroeber (1925);
the census of 1910 returned 7 full-bloods and 8 half-breeds. (See Yuki.)
Derived from the mission of San Juan Capistrano. Also called:
Gaitchim, given by Gatschet (1876).
Netela, given by Hale (1846), meaning "my language."
Juaneño belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the
Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their speech being a variant of
Location. From the Pacific Ocean to the crest of the southern
continuation of the Sierra Santa Ana. Southward, toward the Luiseno, the
boundary ran between the San Onofre and Las Pulgas; on the north, toward
the Gabrielino, it is said to have followed Alisos
|Ahachmai, on the lower course of San Juan Creek
below the mission of San
|Alona, north of the Mission of San Juan Capistrano.
|Hechmai, near the
coast south of Arroyo San Onofre.
Humai, on the middle course of San Juan
Palasakeuna, at the head of Arroyo San Mateo.
Panhe, near the mouth
of Arroyo San Mateo.
Piwiva, on San Juan Creek above San Juan Capistrano.
Pu-tuid-em, near the
coast between San Juan and Aliso Creeks.
Population. The Juaneflo were estimated by Kroeber (1925) at 1,000 in
1770; the census of 1910 returned 16. (See Alliklik.)
Kamia. From their
own term Kamiyai or Kamiyahi, which they
applied also to the Diegueno. Also called:
|Comeya, common synonym used by Bartlett in 1854 and
adopted in Handbook
||of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910).
|I'-um 0'-otam, Pima name for Kamia and Diegueno.
New River Indians, from their location.
Quemaya, so called by Garces in 1775-76.
Tipai, own name, also meaning "person."
Yum, same as I'-um.
Connections. They belonged to the Yuman stock of Powell now considered a
subdivision of the Hokan family, their closest affinities being with the
eastern Diegueno who were sometimes considered one tribe with themselves.
Location. In Imperial Valley, and on the banks of the sloughs connecting
it with Colorado River. (See also Mexico.)
There were no true villages.
Population. Gifford (1931) says there could not have been more than a few
hundred Kamia in aboriginal times. Heintzelman (1857) gives 254 under the
chief Fernando in 1849. (See Diegueno.)
Connection in which they have become noted. Whatever notoriety the Kamia,
an inconspicuous tribe, has attained is due entirely to the fame of their
Kato. A Porno place name meaning "lake." Also called:
Batem-da-kai-ee, given by Gibbs (1853).
Kai Po-mo, given by Powers (1877). Laleshiknom, Yuki name.
Tlokeang, own name.
Connections. The Kato belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and
spoke a dialect peculiar to themselves.
Location. On the uppermost course
of the South Fork of Eel River.
There are said to have been nearly 50 of these, probably an overestimate,
but none of their names are known.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates 500 Kato in 1770; about 50 persons,
mostly full-bloods are still reckoned as Kato. (See
Bear River Indians.)
Kawaiisu. So-called by the Yokuts; the signification of the word is
Connections. The Kawaiisu belonged to the Shoshonean branch of the
Uto-Aztecan linguistic family, and were a more immediate off-shoot,
apparently, of the Chemehuevi.
Location. In the Tehachapi Mountains.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates an aboriginal Kawaiisu population of
perhaps 500 and a present (1925) population of nearly 150. (See
Kitanemuk. Perhaps from the stem ki, "house,"; other synonyms are
Kikitanum, and Kikitamkar.
Connections. The Kitanemuk belonged to the Shoshonean division of the
Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and to a subgroup which included also the
Alliklik, Vanyume and Serrano.
Location. On upper Tejon and Paso Creeks, the streams on the rear side of
the Tehachapi Mountains in the same vicinity and the small creeks draining
the northern slope of the Liebre and Sawmill Range, with Antelope Valley
and the westernmost end of the Mohave Desert.
The present principal Kitanemuk village is called Nakwalki-ve, and is
situated where Tejon Creek breaks out of the hills. (Other names given do
not seem unquestionably those of villages).
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770 there were 3,500
Serrano, Vanyume, Kitanemuk, and Alliklik, and that these were represented
by about 150 in 1910. (See Alliklik.)
Konomihu. Their own name, significance unknown.
Connections. The Konomihu
was the most divergent of the Shastan group of tribes of the Hokan
Location. Territory centering about the forks of Salmon River.
The principal Konomihu village, called, apparently by the Karok, Shamnam,
was between the forks of Salmon River in Siskiyou County, on the right
aide of the south branch just above the junction.
Population. Together with the Chimariko, New River Shasta, and Okwanuchu,
the Konomihu are estimated by Kroeber (1925) to have numbered about 1,000
in 1770; they are not now enumerated separately from the Shasta, of whom
844 were returned in 1930.
Koso. Significance unknown.
Ke-at, given by Gatschet (Wheeler Survey, p. 411, 1879).
more often used.
Connections. The Koso formed the westernmost extension of the
Shoshoni-Comanche branch of the Shoshonean division of the Uto-Aztecan
Location. On a barren tract of land in the southeastern part of the State
between the Sierra and the State of Nevada, and including Owens Lake, the Coso, Argus, Panamint, and Funeral Mountains and the intervening valleys.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates an aboriginal Koso population of not
over 500; since 1880 they have been placed at about 100 to 150.
Lassik. The name derived from that of a chief.
Connections. The Lassik belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and
were connected very closely with the Nongatl, who lay just to the north.
Location. On a stretch of Eel River, from a few miles above the mouth of
the South Fork not quite to Kekawaka Creek; also Dobbins Creek, an eastern
affluent of the main stream, and Soldier Basin at the head of the North
Fork; to the east they extended to the head of Mad River.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates that in 1770, along with the Nongatl
and Sinkyone, the Lassik numbered 2,000, and in 1910, 100. (See
Luisefio. From the name of the Mission of San Luis Rey de Francia. Also
Ghecham or Khecham, from the native name of San Luis Rey Mission.
Maidu (See Maidu)
Mattole. Perhaps from the name of a village. Also called:
Wailaki name, meaning "foreigners."
Connections. The Mattole constitute one of the primary divisions of those
Indians of the Athapascan stock living in California.
Location. On Bear River and Mattole River drainages; also on a few miles
of Eel River and its Van Dusen Fork immediately above the Wiyot.
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates that there were 500 Mattole in 1770;
the census of 1910 returned 34, including 10 full-bloods. (See
Milwok (See Milwok)
Modoc. This tribe extended into the northern part of the
State. (See Oregon.)
Mohave. The Mohave occupied some territory in the neighborhood of the
Colorado River. (See Arizona.)
Nicoleño. From San Nicolas, the most eastward of the Santa Barbara
Connections. They belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the Uto-Aztecan
linguistic stock, but their more immediate affiliations are uncertain.
Location. On the island above mentioned.
Population. Kroeber (1925) gives an estimate of their population in
conjunction with the Gabrielino and Fernandeno. (See also
Nongatl. Significance unknown. Also called:
Saia, by the Hupa, along with other Athapascans to the south; meaning "far
Connections. The Nongatl belonged to the Athapascan linguistic family and
were closely connected with the Lassik.
Location. In the territory drained by three right-hand affluents
of Eel River, Yager Creek, Van Dusen Fork, and Larrabee Creek and on the upper
waters of Mad River.
Population. The Nongatl were estimated by Kroeber (1925) to number in
1770, along with the Sinkyone and Lassik, 2,000, and 100 in 1910. (See
Bear River Indians.)
Connections. The Okwanuchu belonged to the Shastan Division of the Hokan
Location. On the upper Sacramento from about the vicinity of Salt and
Boulder Creeks to its headwaters; also on the McCloud River and Squaw
Creek from about their junction up.
Chimariko and Shasta.
Paiute, Northern. The Northern Paiute occupied part of the Sierra in the
southeastern part of the State and the desert country east of it and also
a strip of land in the extreme northeast. (See Nevada.)
Patwin (See Patwin)
Pomo (See Pomo)
Salinan. From Salinas River which drains most of their
Serrano. A Spanish word, meaning "mountaineers." Also called:
Shasta. Probably from a chief called Sasti. Also called:
Ekpimi, Ilmawi name.
Mashukhara, Karok name.
Wulx, Takelma name, meaning "enemies."
Connections. The Shasta constituted part of the Shastan division
of the Hokan linguistic stock.
Location. On Klamath River from a point between Indian and
Thompson Creeks to a spot a few miles above the mouth of Fall Creek; also
the drainage areas of two tributaries of the Klamath. Scott River and
Shasta River, and a tract on the north side of the Siskiyous in Oregon on
the affluents of Rogue River known as Stewart River and Little Butte
|Ahotireitsu, in Shasta Valley.
Cecilville Indians, about Cecilville; they spoke a distinct dialect; the
||called by Merriam (1926) Haldokehewuk.
|Iruaitsu, in Scott Valley.
Kahosadi, on the affluents of Rogue River.
Kammatwa or Wiruhikwairuk'a, on Klamath River.
The term New River Shasta is incorrectly used since there were no Shasta
Ahawaiwig, Asta, Ihiweah, Ikahig, Kusta.
Itayah and Crowichaira the only ones known.
|Kammatwa Division (in order up stream):
Chitatowoki (north side), Ututsu (N.), Asouru (N.), Sumai (N.), Arahi
(S.), Harokwi (N.), Kwasuk (S.), Aika (N.), Umtahawa (N.), Itiwukha (N.),
Ishui (N.), Awa (N.), Waukaiwa (N.), Opshiruk (N.), Ishumpi (N.), Okwayig
(N.), Eras (S.), Asurahawa (S.), Kutsastsus (N.).
Population. Kroeber (1925) estimates that there were about 2,000 Shasta in
1770; in 1910 there were only about 100. The entire Shastan stock numbered
844 according to the returns of the 1930 census, and in 1937, 418 "Pit
River" Indians were enumerated, a portion of this stock.
Connections in which they have become noted. Mount Shasta, Shasta County,
and a place in the county preserve the name of the Shasta Indians.
Sinkyone. From Sinkyo, the name of the South Fork of Eel River.
Connections. The Sinkyone were one of the tribes of the southern
California group of the Athapascan family.
Location. On the South Fork of Eel River and its branches and the adjacent
coast from near Four Mile Creek to Usal Lagoon.
(Given by native informants to Nomland (1935) instead of villages)
|Anse'ntakuk, the land south of Briceland.
Chashinguk, the ridge north of Briceland.
Senke'kuk, to the South Fork from Garberville.
Shusashish'ha, the region north of Garberville.
Totro'be, the land around Briceland.
Yenekuk, an area southeast of Briceland.
Yese', coast area to the Mattole boundary at Four Mile Creek.
the Mattole River area.
Bear River Indians).
Tolowa. So-called by the
Yurok. Also called:
Aqusta, by Dorsey (MS.), meaning "southern language," Naltunnetunne name.
Lagoons, by Heintzleman (in Ind. Aff. Rep., 1857, p. 392; 1858).
Heintzleman (op. cit.).
Connections. The Tolowa constituted one of the divisions into which the
California peoples of the Athapascan linguistic stock are divided, but
they were closely connected with the Athapascan tribes of Oregon
immediately to the north.
Location. On Crescent Bay, Lake Earl, and Smith River.
(According to Drucker, 1937)
|Etcūlet, at end of point in Lake Earl.
Ha'tsahothwut, long abandoned site.
Kehoslī'hwut, on east bank, lower course of Smith River.
Mi'litcuntun, on middle course of Smith River.
Mu'nsontun, on east bank,
on lower course of Smith River.
Munshrī'na taso', long abandoned site.
Muslye', on North Fork of Smith River.
Na'kutat, a suburb of Tatitun,
Numore'tun, long abandoned site.
Sitragī'tum, on the west bank of Smith River below Mill Creek.
Ta'gestlsatun, on coast at mouth of Wilson Creek, mixed with Yurok.
Ta'tatun, on Crescent Bay.
Tati'tun, on shore of Crescent Bay near north end.
Tcestu'mtun, on South
Fork of Smith River.
Tcunsu'tltun, on east bank of Smith River at mouth of Mill Creek.
Te'nitcuntun, between North and South Forks of Smith River at junction.
Tltru'ome, on Crescent Bay toward south end.
Tro'let, a small suburb of
Yotokut near mouth of Smith River.
Tunme'tun, on a small branch of the
North Fork of Smith River.
Tushroshku'shtun, on peninsula between two arms
of Lake Earl.
Yoto'kut, on coast south of mouth of Smith River.
Population. Kroeber estimates "well under" 1,000 Tolowa in 1770 and
indicates a possible modification to 450; the census of 1910 returned 121. In 1930 the "Oregon Athapascans," including
the Totowa, were reported to number 504.
Tübatulabal. A Shoshonean word meaning "pine-nut eaters." Also
Vanyume. Name applied by the Mohave; significance unknown, though it is
probably related to the term Panamint given to the Koso.
Connections. The Vanyume belonged to the Shoshonean Division of the
Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, their closest connections being probably
with the Kitanemuk, and secondly with the Serrano.
Location. On Mohave River.
Alliklik.) They are now extinct as a tribe.
Wailaki. A Wintun word meaning "north language," applied to other Wintun
groups and to some foreign groups. Also called:
Kak'-wits, Yuki name,
meaning "northern people."
Connections. The Waitaki belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and
to the southern California group.
Location. On Eel River from the Lassik territory to the Big Bend, several affluents on the west side, Kekawaka Creek on the east side, and the whole
of the North Fork except the head.
Subdivisions and Village Communities
On main Eel River:
|Sehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side, Big Bend Creek to McDonald Creek.
Ninkannich-kaiya, opposite Sehlchikyo-kaiya.
Nehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side downstream to the mouth of North Fork.
Sehlchikyo-kaiya, on the east side downstream. Tatisho-kaiya, on the west
||opposite the mouth of North Fork.
|Bas-kaiya, on the east side below Sehlchikyo-kaiya.
Sla-kaiya, on the east
side below Bas-kaiya.
Chisko-kaiya, on the east side below Sla-kaiya.
Seta-kaiya, on the west side below Tatisho-kaiya.
Kaikiche-kaiya, on the
west side below Seta-kaiya.
Dahlso-kaiya, Set'ahlchicho-kaiya, K'andang-kaiya, in order downstream on
||the west side.
|Ihikodang-kaiya, on the west side below Chisko-kaiya.
the east side at the mouth of Kakawaka Creek.
On the lower part of North Fork:
|Setandong-kiyahang, Secho-kiyahang, Kaiye-kiyahang—in
||Higher up North Fork:
|T'odannang-kiyahang, on the North Fork below Hull Creek.
upstream on North Fork.
Chokot-kiyahang, on and above Red Mountain Creek.
Ch'i'ankot-kiyahang, on Jesus Creek.
Population. The Wailaki were estimated by Kroeber (1925) as 1,000 about
1770; they were given as 227 in the census of 1910. (See
Bear River Indians.)
Wappo. An Americanization of Spanish Guapo.
"brave," given them on account of their
stubborn resistance to Spanish military
Washo. The range of this tribe extended over considerable Californian
territory about the angle in the eastern boundary line of the State. (See
Whilkut. From Hupa Hoilkut-hoi. Also called: Redwood Indians, the popular
name for them.
Connections. The Whilkut belonged to the Hupa dialectic group of the
Athapascan linguistic family.
Location. On the upper part of Redwood Creek above the Chilula Indians and
Mad River, except in its lowest course, up to the vicinity of Iaqua Butte.
Population. Kroeber (1932) estimates about 500 Whilkut in aboriginal
times; the census of 1910 returned 50 full-bloods and some mixed-bloods.
Wintu. The native word meaning "people." For synonyms see Wintun.
Connections. The Wintu were the northernmost division of the Copehan stock
of Powell, later called Wintun by Kroeber (1932) and now regarded as part
of the Penutian family.
Location. In the valleys of the upper Sacramento and
upper Trinity Rivers north of Cottonwood Creek and extending from Cow
Creek on the east to the South Fork of the Trinity on the west.
(As given by Du Bois (1935) but placing the native name
|Dau-nom, "in-front-of-west" (Bald Hills), a flat
valley area at the foot of the hills
||south of Reading and east of the coastal range.
(Stillwater), comprising the plateau to the north of
|Elpom, "shore place" (Keswick),
extending from a point somewhat south of
||Kennett on the Sacramento chiefly along the west
bank southward almost to Reading, and including the former Indian
settlements around the mining town of Old Shasta.
|Hayfork Wintu, on the Hayfork branch of
Trinity River and on Trinity River
||about Junction City, extending also from about
Middletown westward to the South Fork of the Trinity.
|Klabalpom (French Gulch), on the upper reaches of Clear Creek.
Nomsus, "west-dwelling" (Upper Trinity), on the East Fork of Trinity River
||Trinity River proper as far south as Lewiston.
|Nomtipom, "west-hillside-place" (Upper
Sacramento), along the precipitous
||reaches of the upper Sacramento above Kennett.
|Waimuk, "north inhabitant(?)," in the
narrow valley of the upper McCloud
|Winimen, "middle-water" (McCloud), in
the McCloud and lower Pit Valleys.
Du Bois (1935) mentions Nomkentcau and Nomkali as two villages in Watson
Wintun. The word for "people" in the northern Wintun dialects.
Wawa h, Mono name for all Sacramento River tribes, meaning "strangers."
Xdtukwiwa, Shasta name for a Wintun Indian.
Connections. The Wintun were formerly considered a part of Powell's Copehan stock and the Wintun of Kroeber (1932) but are
now placed in the Penutian family.
Location. On the west side of the Sacramento Valley from the
river up to the coast range, but falling short of this in spots and
ex-tending beyond it in others, and from Cottonwood Creek on the north to
about the latitude of Afton and Stonyford on the south.
(Generally south to north)
|Dahchi'mchini-sel, in a village called Dahchi'mchini
(upstream of Brisco Creek
||and 4 miles above Elk Creek).
|Toba, reported by Barrett (1919) as a town at the mouth of Brisco Creek.
A tribelet probably located at Tolokai or Doloke (at the mouth of Elk
Pomtididi-sel, at the village of Pomtididi (where Grindstone Creek
|A tribelet at a village called Kalaiel (on the North Fork of Stony Creek).
Soninmak (at a "butte" named Son-porn down Stony Creek).
Pelti-kewel (reported north of preceding by one informant).
A tribelet at the villages of Sohu's-labe (3 or 4 miles south of Fruto)
||Nome'I-mim-labe (2 or 3 miles farther south still).
|Nom-kewel or Nom-laka, with their village, Lo-pom (south of Thomas Creek).
Walti-kewel, with villages called Noitikel, Kenkopol, and Saipanti
||together on the north side of Thomas Creek below
|Olwenem-wintun, at O'lwenem (near the
mouth of Thomas Creek on the
|A tribelet at Mi'tenek (at Squaw Hill Ferry).
Pelmem-we, at Pelmem (near Vina and the mouth of Deer Creek).
Tehêmet, (at Tehama).
Da-mak (where Redbank Creek comes in below Red Bluff).
Wai-kewel (on Elder Creek).
A tribelet at Chuidau (on the South Fork of Cottonwood Creek).
Population. Kroeber (1932) estimates 12,000 Wintun in 1770 and
about 1,000 in 1910. The census of 1930 returned 512 Wintun, Wintu, and
Properly the name of one of the three Wiyot
districts but extended by most of their
neighbors over the whole people.
Yahi. Meaning "person" in their own language.
Connections. The Yahi constituted the southernmost group of the Yanan
division of the Hokan linguistic stock.
Location. On Mill and Deer Creeks.
Bushkuina, Tolochuaweyu, and Tuliyani were on or near Mill Creek;
Bopmayhuwi, Gahma, K'andjauha, Puhiya, and Yisch'inna on or near Deer
Population. Included in the Yana.
Yana. Meaning "person" in their own language. Also called:
Kom'-bo, Maidu name.
Nó-si or Nó-zi, a name given by Powers (1877).
Tisaiqdji, Ilmawi name.
Connections. The Yana were originally considered an independent linguistic
stock but are now placed in the larger Hokan family.
Location. Including the Yahi, the Yana extended from Pit River to Rock
Creek, and from the edge of the upper Sacramento Valley to the headwaters
of the eastern tributaries of Sacramento River.
Aside from the Yahi, they embraced three dialectic subdivisions, a northern (on the drainage of Montgomery Creek into Pit River and that of
Cedar Creek, an affluent of Little Crow Creek), a central (the entire Cow
Creek drainage and Bear Creek), and a southern (on Battle, Payne, and
Antelope Creeks and one or two smaller streams).
|Djewintaurik'u, south of Montgomery.
Djitpamauwid'u, on Cedar Creek.
K'asip'u, south of Round Mountain.
Badjiyu, on Clover Creek.
Ban'ha, inland between the two forks of Cow Creek.
Djichitpemauna, on Bear
Hamedamen, at Millville.
Haudulimauna, near the South Fork of Cow Creek.
Hodjinimauna, on the North
Fork of Bear Creek.
Luwaiha, on Old Cow Creek.
Pawi, on Clover Creek.
Pulsu'aina, near the North Fork of Cow Creek.
Ship'a, between Little Cow
Creek and Oak Run.
Unchunaha, between the North Fork of Cow Creek and Clover Creek.
west of Shingletown.
Wichuman'na, on the South Fork of Cow Creek.
|K'uwiha, on Battle Creek.
Population. Kroeber (1932) estimates 1,500 Yana in 1770 including the
Yahi, and states that there are less than 40 full and mixed-bloods today,
all of the Northern and Central Divisions. Only 9 appear under the head of Yanan in the census of 1930.
Yokuts (See Yokuts)
Derived from the Wintun language and meaning
"stranger," or "foe."
Yuki, Coast; or
Ukhotno'm. (See Yuki.) The second name is applied to them
by the interior Yuki, signifying "ocean people."
Connections. The Coast
Yuki believe themselves to be an offshoot
from the Huchnom but linguistic examination seems to place them near the
Location. The Pacific coast from Cleone to a point halfway
between Rockport and Usal and inland to the divide between the coast
streams and Eel River.
These have not been recorded but the following places were probably
inhabited: On the coast from north to south:
|On-chil-ka or On-chil-em, beyond Rockport.
Es'im, at Rockport or Hardy Creek.
Melhom-i'iken (Warren Creek).
Hisimel-auhkem (the next creek).
Lil-p'in-kem (De Haven).
Shipep or Shipoi (Westport).
K'etim, Chetman Gulch.
Lilim, Mussel Rock.
Ok'omet or Shipoi; Kabesilah.
Methuyak-olselem (the creek north of Ten Mile River)
Metkuyaki or Metkuyakem (the mouth of Ten Mile River and also the river).
Sus-mel-im, at the mouth of Pudding Creek.
Ol-hepech-kem (Novo River).
Onp'otilkei (in Sherwood Valley).
Ukemim (near Willits).
Population. Kroeber (1932) estimates that in 1770 and
1850 there were 500 Coast Yuki; the census of 1910 reported 15. (See
Yuma. This tribe extended into the extreme southeastern corner of the
State along the Colorado River. (See Arizona.)
Yurok. Signifying "downstream" in the language of the neighboring Karok.
California Indian Resources
Return to Indian